9 . DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH PARADIGM According to (Creswell,2013:72), to have a truly conceptualized qualitative research study, it is essential to have a coherent paradigm that will help put the concept together in a comprehensive manner. This study will apply qualitative approach. Qualitative research is the process of inquiry that seeks to understand the nature of its subjects. Qualitative research is designed to elucidate the characteristics of the things it studies, as they are perceived by human beings. Qualitative research thus examines subjective experience, rather than attempting to gather and analyse objective data.Qualitative research can be thought of as the opposite of quantitative research. While quantitative research attempts to gather numerically expressed concrete information, qualitative research aims to explore the concepts that people use to organize information. It is often said that while quantitative research attempts to measure reality, qualitative research attempts to describe why reality is the way it is (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007:20). All studies include assumptions about the world and knowledge that informs the inquiries (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007:20). The research will apply interpretivist approach. Interpretivism is a research paradigm that is associated with qualitative research (Creswell,2013:72. The focus of data collection will be to obtain rich descriptions of individual experiences to explain CCTV usage through data collection using semi-structured and focus group interviews, document analysis and observation.
For this study the researcher will follow the Guba & Lincoln 1994:62) subjectivist epistemology, as the purpose of the present research is to gain deeper understanding of the phenomenon of CCTV technology in terms of its features and aspects through the participants’ own experiences and understandings at work. How do they perceive it? How does it impact them.) The researcher will subscribe to the interpretivist view that social realities are made up of multiple truths depending on the individual’s subjectivity, then qualitative research is the perfect way to develop theories on human behaviour. Qualitative research is an approach emphasizing the holistic and realistic manifestation of the events in the natural environment they are attached to and using different qualitative data collection tools such as observation, interview, and document analysis (Creswell,2013:64). Additionally, qualitative research process allows the researcher to systematically collect data through observation, participation and participants’ subjectivity and has the ability to address the complexities of understanding human behaviour in context of their social and physical environments. In this proposed study the impact and effectiveness of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems for public safety and security: A case study of Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg, the author will follow a qualitative process to understand the perception and experiences of individuals or societies about CCTV surveillance (McKusker & Gunaydin, 2015:75).
Using an interpretivist view, the social work researcher will be interested in the meaning that individuals give to understanding other humans and the society that they live in. As a social work researcher, will be interested in how people make sense of the world, how they understand behaviours of other people, or understand interactions between other people (Sheppard, 2012; Rubin & Babbie, 2013). For example, the impact and effectiveness of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems for public safety and security: A case study of Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg, this is a naturalist or constructivist view, is that knowledge is established through the meanings attached to the phenomena studied; researchers interact with the subjects of study to obtain data; inquiry changes both researcher and subject; and knowledge is context and time dependent (Coll & Chapman, 2000; Cousins, 2002. A paradigm is philosophical way of thinking (Creswell, 2013:45). Some of the key differences between the epistemologies of qualitative (naturalist/constructivist) and quantitative (positivist) research paradigms were introduced, highlighting their differences as reflecting unique ontological views about the nature of reality. The researcher believes in the constructivist ontology that posits that there is no objective reality. Rather, there are multiple realities constructed by human beings who experience a phenomenon of interest. In contrast, Positivism predominates in science and assumes that science quantitatively measures independent facts about a single apprehensible reality (Healy & Perry, 2000:75). The author proposes that constructivist paradigm will guide this research. This is the researcher’s worldview which represents how the world is experienced, based on researcher’s personal values, principles, morals. To define, discover and to know social phenomena, the researchers within social science employ diverse methodologies of research that are in general divided into research methodologies such as quantitative qualitative mixed method (Creswell,2014:34). Methodology is the strategy or plan of action which lies behind the choice and use of particular methods (Crotty, 1998: 3). In this proposed research study, the methodology will be qualitative, which consider human realities to be subjective, multiple, and manifold and are socially constructed by their respondents (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison 2011; Richard, Lewis, Nicholls & Ormston 2013). In (Bogdan & Biklen,2003:6) stated one of the features of qualitative research is to define how people negotiate meaning. In an attempt to gain insights, qualitative researchers tend to seek to extract meaning from their data. That is, qualitative researchers study phenomena in their natural settings and strive to make sense of, or to interpret them with respect to the meanings people bring to them (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000:62). The term method is used in this proposed study to refer to concrete procedures of qualitative data collection (such as focus groups, interviews, or qualitative observations) or qualitative data analysis. Adopting an interpretive approach within a constructivist paradigm (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison 2011; Richard, Lewis, Nicholls & Ormston 2013), the author proposes an action research methodology will be used to conduct the impact and effectiveness of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems for public safety and security: A case study of Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg.Interpretive reality is individually constructed; there are as many realities as individuals(Guba’s (1990:34).
10 . RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This study will apply qualitative study following an interpretive, descriptive, and exploratory approach. The study focuses on the participants’ perceptions and experiences of using CCTV technology which is characteristic of the qualitative approach. Creswell (2013:52) indicates that exploratory studies are most advantageous when little has been written about the phenomenon or the population being studied. The research study will be based upon qualitative approach as informed by interpretive approach, because the researcher is trying to see the social world from the participant’s perspective and consider the participant’s perception of the world (Edwards & Skinners, 2001:56). A qualitative approach using semi-structured, focus group interviews, observation and document analysis techniques will be used to achieve the objectives of the study and collect qualitative information about the evaluation of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems at Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg, South Africa.The qualitative design is considered more appropriate because dissertation quality is essentially something plural and multi-perspectives. This design can show the relationship between the researcher and the respondents to find the meaning of the research. A case study of Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg. The study population will be drawn from, private companies, civilian private CCTV Operators, as indicated in the below table 1.The proposer found qualitative research approach as helpful method that will provides the researcher with the knowledge and understanding of participant’s actions in a detailed manner (Peck & Mummery, 2017:54).The reasons for the selection of a qualitative research emanated from the holistic approach to the research question, obtaining of quality data, the openness of the research, the status of the researcher as a cognitive instrument, and the experience gained and used in describing the study itself .The focus of the study will be to investigate the impact and effectiveness of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems for public safety and security in Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg, using a qualitative approach. Qualitative research is a typical, type of research methodology that produces findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other means of quantification (Denzin & Lincoln, 2018:15). Qualitative research provides insights and understanding of people’s experiences. The author proposes to use descriptive phenomenology as a research design. Purposive sampling will be used to ensure that all participants of interest are recruited. Sampling in qualitative research plays a vital role, as the essence of most qualitative research is to study a phenomenon in its natural setting. In this study, the researcher proposes to use purposive sampling as articulated below. The descriptive phenomenological research strategy regards experience as international and therefore believes that reality should be consciously observed, described, and understood (Edmonds & Kennedy,2017:168). In this natural setting the researcher proposes to use multiple methods that are interactive and humanistic, emerging data rather than prefigured data, and being fundamentally interpretive interviews, documentary analysis, or focus groups on the study. The availability of such different methodological techniques for exploring the phenomenon affords the researcher an opportunity to collect an abundant amount of information which would help to lessen bias and enhance data credibility in the research (Babbie& Mouton,2016:75). This approach investigates about peoples’ lives, lived experiences, behaviours, emotions, and feelings as well as about organisational functioning, social movements about a phenomenon (Creswell,2014:56). The authors’ focus in this study is on understanding the experiences of participants rather than the interpretation of events in the lives of participants. The idea behind following descriptive phenomenological perspective is to explain how the live world of subjects is developed and experienced (Merriam &Tisdell,2016:23). Data collection methods will consist of non-random sampling of people that should statistically represent a population, collects open-ended, emerging data that is then used to develop themes.