7. LITERATURE REVIEW Sudheesh, Duggappa, and Nethra (2016:632) suggested that this section of the proposal informs the reader of what is already known on the topic or what the unique focus of the study is. The focus of this will be to assesses the impact and effectiveness of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems for public safety and security: A case study of Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg. Grinnell and Unrau (2014:612) elaborated by stating that the purpose of the literature review is, among others, to assure the reviewers that the author understands the current issues related to the research topic and hints at the potential contribution of the study.
7.1 introduction to literature review In recent years, CCTV have been given great attention due to their potential to prevent crime, safety, security and wellbeing of public and private space.
Closed Circuit -Tele-Vision (CCTV) plays an important role in security management for public safety and security, however, only a few studies focused on the CCTV awareness level among shopping malls. The current study proposes to examine the impact and effectiveness of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems for public safety and security: A case study of Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg. Closed circuit television (CCTV) technology has created enormous benefits for public access, however, different scholars have mixed responses to its impact and effectiveness. Although CCTV monitoring is continuously being developed, its justification is not straightforward. Evaluative studies concern its effectiveness, reflected in a decrease in the number of crime incidents and cost-effectiveness, considering the costs of building and operating CCTV surveillance systems and the monetary benefits of decreased incidents of crime. A systematic review of studies focused on CCTV surveillance systems (Piza, 2018:62) shows that, in general, CCTV is associated with a decrease in crime incidence. Several mechanisms can explain this effect (Tilley, 1993). Due to CCTV surveillance, offenders are more afraid of being caught, security personnel can be better allocated to improve police and security operations, and potential victims are more cautious due to visible cameras acting as a warning message (Pawson & Tilley, 1997; Welsh et al., 2009). Scholars have concluded that increased offender apprehension, increased natural surveillance, publicity, and improved citizen awareness are potential mechanisms of CCTV-generated crime reduction (Gill & Spriggs, 2005:48). More recently, Alexandre (2017:56) reviewed seven randomized and natural experiments of CCTV, finding crime reductions between 24% and 28% in public streets and urban subway stations, but no effect in parking facilities or suburban subway stations. The findings of (Alexandre 2017:64) diverged somewhat from those of (Welsh & Farrington 2008, 2009a). CCTV was associated with significant reductions in both vehicle crime and property crime in general, with no significant effects observed for violent crime. Public safety agencies combatting violent crime problems may need to consider whether resources would be better allocated toward other crime prevention measures. For jurisdictions with existing CCTV systems, public safety agencies may need to make changes to their existing strategies to effectively combat violence. Future research should continue to ensure the policy relevance of CCTV research. It is important to note that knowing whether a technology “works” is not enough for policymakers; the contextual and procedural aspects necessary to maximize effects are equally important when considering the adoption of a crime prevention technology (Salvemini, Piza, Carter, Gnomon, and Merritt, 2015)