3.2 Effectiveness Van Dongen (2015:85) defines effective as “an impact that is desirable in the eyes of the state… and can be observed in the terrorist actor
3.3 Physical security is a combination of physical measures and procedures
designed to prevent or reduce threats or attacks on people, information, and
physical assets (Fennely, 2003:50)
3.4 Threat Intent and capability relate to adversaries or agents associated with threats to take actions that will result in harm or suspected harm to certain individuals, groups, organizations, or certain communities (Australian Standards, 2009:90).
4. Rational for the study The purpose of this study will be to examine the impact and effectiveness of Close Circuit Television surveillance systems for public safety and security: Case study of Rosebank and Killarney Malls, Johannesburg. The significance of the study explains its contribution to the body of knowledge in the research area. The most frequently cited rationales will be:
study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the effectiveness of CCTV systems in crime prevention and the durability of their effects.
The findings of this research can be beneficial and significant for scholars in the field security risk management. Also, they might be more beneficial to practitioners
who may consider the recommendations when designing security structures. The significance of the study derived from the following points: study provides other researchers with some reliable instrument
to assist planners, designers, and policymakers in identifying any potential existing CPTED/CCTV strategies that work in reducing criminal activity
To adopt security policies to secure lives and property.
security agents benefit from its enhanced capabilities for detecting or retracing criminal activities
5. Problem statement According to (Leedy & Omrod,2010:50),the problem statement is an axis around which the whole study effort revolves. This thesis will examine to what extent people have concerns …………………………………………………………
Closed circuit television (CCTV) serves as a panacea for crime prevention and control in public access. Public access property refers to sites such as parking areas, commercial business sites such shopping centres/malls, as well as airports, train stations and government department service sites (e.g., municipalities and departmental buildings for instance Home Affairs). Today’s malls are new focal points of urbanity: meeting points, community centres, entertainment areas, even tourist attractions. Such shopping malls represent a high surveillance potential. The objectives to employ and use video-surveillance are shaped by the different expectations and practices of the actors involved. From 2005 onwards, a number of operators/owners/managers of such sites, becoming aware of the apparent effectiveness of the CBD CCTV surveillance systems in the major South African cities CBDs began installing their own systems, particularly in car parks, usually as entrance fee payment sites. The installation of these surveillance systems was again primarily to combat theft from car parks and parking garages, which had long been a problem in South African cities. For many years individual shops and the larger departmental chain stores have made use of in-house CCTV camera surveillance systems. With the increase in business robberies and armed robberies at stores inside of shopping centres countrywide the Consumer Goods Council of South Africa, at the end of 2008, developed guidelines for target hardening at shopping centres. These encouraged shopping centre management/owners to install security CCTV camera surveillance systems throughout their shopping centres and malls, i.e., in the passages, hallways and in the adjacent car park areas, as part of overall integrated security measures at shopping centres. CCTV is a matter of making unverified assumptions such as “security wish fulfillment,” “blind faith in CCTV effectiveness,” or “technological fixation” (Beck & Willis, 1999:50). Investing in CCTV can be validated via several criteria, such as measuring its effectiveness by monitoring any decrease in the number of crimes caused by installing CCTV surveillance cameras, which can be used to measure the benefits of CCTV systems. Crime in South Africa especially in cities and big towns has been on the rise. It is perceived to be as a result of the fast urbanization progress in not only in South Africa but Africa as a continent. Crime is associated with high economic costs, sociological costs, and psychological effects. With this there is considerable variance in the way service providers utilise CCTV and whether the product of surveillance cameras is effectively integrated into the public safety and security function. There is lack of information the knowledge gap with regard to this particular aspect of the topic of CCTV meant for public safety and security in society. Many evaluations of the effectiveness of CCTV had been methodologically unsatisfactory for the following reasons:
lack of independent evaluation
little discussion of displacement or diffusion of benefit
inadequate pre and post CCTV time periods in which data were collected