1. INTRODUCTION 2
2. Background to the study 2
3. Key theoretical terms 3
4. Rationale for the study 4
5. Research problem 4
6. Research questions 6
7. Research aim Objectives 7
8 . LITERATURE REVIEW 8
9 . DESCRIPTION OF THE RESEARCH PARADIGM 9
10. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 10
11. Research Approach ….12
12. Research Design ….12
13. Data Collection Methods ….14
14. Pilot Study 17
15. Data Analysis 18
16. Validity and Reliability 19
17. Ethical considerations 21
18. Value of the study ….22
19. Limitations 22
20. Thesis Layout 23
21. Proposed research budget 24
23. References 26
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras are widely used in crime prevention, but its use is controversial. However, there are mixed findings as to the efficacy of CCTV in public places as crime prevention or crime control measure. Given the controversial nature of CCTV, surprisingly little is known about how it is used and how effective it is in achieving many stated aims. The author believes CCTV does absolutely nothing to prevent crime, nor to reduce the fear of crime. What Closed Circuit Television (i.e., surveillance video) can do is to provide evidence against criminals. Such evidence can be used to identify criminals (who can then be arrested and prosecuted), and to convict them for their crimes so that they would be punished. To the extent that the likelihood of punishment is increased, criminals will either be deterred or removed for a while from the street, either of which helps reduce crime and the fear thereof. CCTV cameras at public places lets criminals think twice before committing any crime. Possibly they have a measurable deterrent effect, but it's very difficult to be sure what crimes might have happened, but didn't, because of the presence of a CCTV camera. There is absolutely no doubt that CCTV cameras are of immense benefit to the police when it comes to detecting the story behind a crime. CCTV has several potential applications for public safety and has been deployed with the intention variously of preventing crime, detecting offences, improving the response to emergencies, assisting in the management of places, and reducing public fear of crime (Ratcliffe 2011:15). In the context of this limited academic evidence, several organizations have produced reports on the topic of the value of CCTV for investigation, some of dubious quality. This study seeks to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the determinative factors in Malls’ decisions to install and maintain CCTV, the corresponding mechanisms of the network, and the prevalence of evaluations of public space CCTV systems across South Africa. The researcher explores the practices of CCTV operators using a case study of a public camera surveillance system in Rosebank and Killarney Malls in South Africa. These CCTV initiatives have been largely utilized as methods of monitoring public space over the past decade in South Africa. Despite its widespread application, there is a severe lack of reliable research that informs policy and practice concerning its use in crime prevention and reduction programs. Closed-circuit television is applied as an Intervention measure that is assessed through the evaluation process. Evaluation is a vital component in the process of crime prevention. In general, the purpose of an evaluation is to assess the causal connection between an intervention and an outcome. Outcomes refer to the changes in crime. The philosophical view underpinning usage of CCTV is that potential offenders may decide to not act on a criminal opportunity after considering the increased risk because the camera is monitoring their actions. In the context of preventing auto-related crimes, the technique appears to fit well within these theoretical principles by providing technology-assisted guardianship that may make targets less suitable, a location more risky, or the methods required by offenders to compromise the mechanism more difficult. It is the process of evaluation, however, which informs us about the utility of the approach. There are still many unanswered questions about the effect of CCTV on the displacement of crime, diffusion of benefits, and fear of crime. Another hurdle for informative research on the effectiveness of CCTV as a crime prevention measure is that programs and their evaluations vary considerably making it difficult to compare results and draw conclusions. While evaluations of CCTV systems used in other contexts reveal modest crime prevention and reduction benefits, those used in the context of car parks are far more encouraging. In the current study, for example, CCTV is the focus of the evaluation primarily at Killarney and Rosebank Malls. valuations of public CCTV systems have largely been contained to four general settings: city and town centres, public housing, public transport, and car parks and this study will focus on Malls. The study will use non experiment approach in evaluating this component in the process of crime prevention. In these evaluations there is no control group and no involvement with the application of an intervention. It is important to note that changes are vulnerable to the method by which the outcomes are measured. Therefore, it is important to consider whether a change in the type of crime measurement would result in a change in the outcomes. In general, the purpose of an evaluation is to assess the causal connection between an intervention and an outcome. Evaluation is a vital component in the process of crime prevention. In general, the purpose of an evaluation is to assess the causal connection between an intervention and an outcome. Through this process, evaluations can provide information about the effectiveness of a specific crime prevention measure, but more importantly, they can inform theory and effect policy decisions about future interventions. The primary concern is whether or not the crime prevention initiative is worth the resources it consumes. Despite its widespread application, there is a severe lack of reliable research that informs policy and practice with respect to its use in crime prevention and reduction programs. While of late there is a growing number of research projects conducted and directed toward evaluating the effects of CCTV on crime prevention, this issue has been largely overlooked despite the widespread adoption of the technology. Further, there are still many unanswered questions about the effect of CCTV on displacement of crime, diffusion of benefits, and fear of crime. Evaluations have also yielded a debate about the importance that monitoring and responding to crime has on the effectiveness of CCTV. While the results of some studies indicated that reductions in crime could be achieved without monitoring or acting towards criminal incidents, others revealed that monitoring cameras and deploying personnel to respond to incidents may have been contributing factors to maintaining reductions in crime. To solve problems regarding social welfare, transport safety, crime prevention, and other social issues, the establishment of CCTV systems in public areas has been proposed. The findings will illustrate a need for greater consideration of the objectives of CCTV which align with the purpose and perceived benefits of the systems, as well as the coverage and operational framework available to support ongoing implementation.
Benefits to the community
reinforce or build on existing situations beliefs and theories.
reduce crime and increase community safety
increase public involvement in reducing crime
increase integration between all stakeholders involved in crime reduction
improve public awareness around the reality and perception of crime
In order to tackle these objectives a series of actions are to be implemented along four major strands:
The development of a strategy for the application of CCTV in the City. Specifically, it was recommended that the city work with private sector partners and the Privacy Commissioner to develop a strategy for the introduction of CCTV pilot projects in areas identified as crime hotspots
In addition, the study will seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research community.
Recommend security services not to direct their activities towards a single objective: reduction of crime and related issues through CCTV technology.
To mitigate against potential overreliance on CCTV surveillance —the ‘means over ends’ syndrome in crime prevention initiatives.
The idea behind to create to create a sustainable society/ To arrive at a solution that best satisfies the various stakeholder.