After you have studied Chapter 2 in your textbook and worked through this study guide chapter, you should be able to:
10. Discuss the characteristics of the permanent settlements established by Spain, France, and Holland on the North American mainland in the early seventeenth century.
20. Examine the seventeenth-century colonization efforts of France, Holland, and England in the Caribbean, and discuss the importance of sugar cane in those efforts.
30. Discuss the factors present in seventeenth-century England that led to colonization of the New World, and explain the goals and motives behind English colonization of the Chesapeake and New England areas.
40. Examine the relationship between the English settlers and American Indians of the Chesapeake and New England areas during the seventeenth century.
50. Assess the impact of the environment, tobacco, the headright system, and indentured servitude on the economic, social, political, and cultural development of the Chesapeake colonies.
60. Describe the beliefs of Puritan Congregationalists, and explain the impact of those beliefs on the economic, social, political, and cultural development of the New England colonies.
70. Discuss the similarities and differences in the lifestyles and in the patterns of family life of New England colonists, Chesapeake colonists, and New England Indians.
The theme of interaction among peoples of different cultures and between people and their environment begun in Chapter 1 continues in Chapter 2. In “New Spain, New France, and New Netherland,” we discuss the colonizing efforts of France and Holland in North America, the characteristics of the settlements they established, and the interactions between the settlers and Native Americans and between the settlers and their environment. In the next section (“The Caribbean”), the focus shifts to French, Dutch, and English efforts to gain control of the Lesser Antilles and the importance of sugar cane in those endeavors.
The third section, “English Interest in Colonization,” takes us from the general discussion of European colonization to the particular case of England. A discussion of social, religious, economic, and political changes in seventeenth-century English society––changes that prompted masses of English citizens to move to North America in the seventeenth century––sets the stage for an explanation in section four of the means, motives, and problems associated with the Jamestown settlement. We then return to the important theme of interaction—in this case the interaction between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatan Confederacy. Here we see the development of the idea that the differences between these two cultures became the focal point of their interaction, with the economic evolution of Virginia and the subsequent spread of the tobacco culture finally leading to open warfare.
The next section, “Life in the Chesapeake,” is a more complete discussion of the development of Chesapeake society politically, socially, and economically. Important elements are the headright system, the emergence of representative assemblies, the practice of indentured servitude, and patterns of family life. These elements interacted to produce a distinctive Chesapeake-area lifestyle.
The last two sections of the chapter, “The Founding of New England” and “Life in New England,” do essentially the same thing for the New England area. Because the motives for settlement were mainly religious, the religious beliefs of the New England settlers are discussed. Examination of the impact of the interaction between settlers and Native Americans of the New England area is intertwined with a discussion of the political, social, and economic evolution of New England society. Finally, contrasts are offered between the lifestyle emerging in New England and the lifestyles of (1) the New England Indians and (2) the Chesapeake settlers.
Listed below are important words and terms that you need to know to get the most out of Chapter 2. They are listed in the order in which they occur in the chapter. After carefully looking through the list, (1) underline the words with which you are totally unfamiliar; (2) put a question mark by those words of which you are unsure; and (3) leave the rest alone.
As you begin to read the chapter, when you come to any of the words you have put question marks beside or underlined (1) slow your reading; (2) focus on the word and on its context in the sentence you are reading; (3) if you can understand the meaning of the word from its context in the sentence or passage in which it is used, go on with your reading; (4) if it is a word that you have underlined or a word that you can’t understand from its context in the sentence or passage, look it up in a dictionary and write down the definition that best applies to the context in which the word is used.
After studying Chapter 2 of A People and a Nation, you should be able to identify and explain fully the historical significance of each item listed below.
Identify each item in the space provided. Give an explanation or description of the item. Answer the questions who, what, where, and when.
Explain the historical significance of each item in the space provided. Establish the historical context in which the item exists. Establish the item as the result of, or as the cause of, other factors existing in the society under study. Answer this question: What were the political, social, economic, and or cultural consequences of this item?
Print out the chart on the pages that follow. Then, in the appropriate blanks, enter brief notes to help you recall key information in Chapter 2 and class lectures relevant to the chart’s subject. Use your completed chart to review for your next test, to identify potential essay questions, and to guide you in composing mock essays answering the questions you think you are most likely to be asked.
Cultural Distinctions in Seventeenth-Century America
Cultural Distinctions in Seventeenth-Century America (cont’d from previous page)
New England Culture
Political Government Structure,
Selection of Leaders
Method of Making Decisions Gender Roles Definition and Handling of Disorder/Crime
Religious Means of Relating to and Explaining the Mysterious
Practices, Rituals Means of Choosing Religious Leaders
Gender Roles Relation to Economy
Print out the chart on pages that follow. Then, in the appropriate blanks, enter brief notes to help you recall key information in Chapter 2 and class lectures relevant to the chart’s subject. Use your completed chart to review for your next test, to identify potential essay questions, and to guide you in composing mock essays answering the questions you think you are most likely to be asked.
Religion’s Effect on Relations
Between Europe’s Colonizers and Native Americans, 1600-1640
(name, location, religion)
Role of Religion in Motives for Colonizing and on Government
Impact of Religion on Growth and Success of Colony
General Attitudes and Treatment of Indians and Their Culture
Chart B continued on next page.
Religion’s Effect on Relations
Europe’s Colonizers and Native Americans, 1600-1640 (cont’d from previous page)
(name, location, religion)
Role of Religion in Motives for Colonizing and on Govern-ment
Impact of Religion on Growth and Success of Colony
Causes of Success or Failure of Attempts To Win Converts
General Attitudes and Treatment of Indians and Their Culture
Massachusetts Puritan Rhode Island Puritan (Separ.)
0Ideas and Details
10. North American Indians were receptive to the religious message of Jesuit missionaries in New France because
a0. the Indians wanted the powers of communication that accompanied literacy.
b0. the Jesuits allowed the village shamans to retain their role and power.
c0. the traditional religious beliefs of the Indians closely matched Catholic beliefs.
d0. the Indians became convinced that European culture was superior to their own.
20. Which of the following is true of the Iroquois-Huron War?
a0. The Iroquois caused a smallpox epidemic among the Hurons by intentionally infecting the tribe with the deadly disease.
b0. The Iroquois were so decisively defeated that they never again posed a serious threat to European settlers in North America.
c0. Using guns obtained from their Dutch allies, the Iroquois practically exterminated the Hurons.
d0. The war ended when European mediators arranged an equitable division of the hunting territories claimed by the two tribes.
30. France, Holland, and England were interested in the Lesser Antilles for which of the following reasons?
a0. They wanted to use these barren islands as penal colonies.
b0. The religious leaders in each nation insisted that missionaries convert the West Indian natives to Christianity.
c0. The islands served as important refueling stations on the way to the North American mainland.
d0. They could profit from the successful cultivation of sugar cane on these islands.
40. Large numbers of English citizens left their homeland in the seventeenth century because of
a0. religious differences between king and subjects.
b0. loss of economic power by the landowning elite.
c0. continued outbreaks of the Black Plague in England and throughout Europe.
d0. constant warfare between England and Holland.
50. The Algonquians and the English differed in which of the following ways?
a0. The agricultural orientation of Algonquian society stood in contrast to the merchant-oriented lifestyle of English society.
b0. English society had definite political hierarchies; Algonquian society was not hierarchical either politically or socially.
c0. The English had deeply held religious beliefs; the Algonquian had none.
d0. The English believed in private ownership of land; the Algonquian believed the land was held communally by the entire group.
60. Which of the following was, in part, a consequence of the headright system?
a0. Large agricultural enterprises in Virginia
b0. Political stability in the Chesapeake colonies of Virginia and Maryland
c0. The introduction of tobacco as a cash crop in the colony of Virginia
d0. Economic success for the Virginia Company and its stockholders
70. Which statement best characterizes the indentured servants who migrated to the Chesapeake in the seventeenth century?
a0. They were usually well established in England but believed there was more opportunity in America.
b0. They were usually from the dregs of English society.
c0. They were usually males between the ages of fifteen and twenty-four.
d0. They were usually married individuals who came with their families.
80. Ineffective government and political instability plagued the colonies of Virginia and Maryland in the late seventeenth century for which of the following reasons?
a0. The assemblies in both colonies were controlled by landless peasants.
b0. The London government attempted to rule the colonies in an autocratic manner.
c0. The assemblies in both colonies were dominated by immigrants who had no strong ties to each other or to their respective colonies.
d0. The constant threat of slave insurrections in the colonies created a climate of fear that bred political chaos.
Objectives 4 and 7
90. The Jamestown settlement and the Plymouth settlement were alike in which of the following ways?
a0. Both had representative assemblies at the time they were founded.
b0. Both settlements survived because of aid from their Indian neighbors.
c0. Both settlements were founded for religious purposes.
d0. Both settlements were located in areas under the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company.
100. John Winthrop’s vision for the colony of Massachusetts included the
a0. building of a society in which religious liberty was extended to all people.
b0. establishment of a society in which all adults over age twenty-one had the right to vote.
c0. establishment of a commonwealth in which the good of the whole community was put ahead of the private concerns of individuals.
d0. building of a classless society in which wealth was equally distributed.
Objectives 6 and 7
110. Why did settlements in Massachusetts Bay initially tend to be compact rather than scattered?
a0. A group of men received a grant of land on which to establish a town; then each family that settled in the town was awarded land located around the town center.
b0. The English monarch insisted on maintaining tight control over Massachusetts and decreed that the settlements be compact.
c0. Individual settlers could receive only one fifteen-acre headright.
d0. Most of the people who settled the Massachusetts Bay colony were merchants rather than farmers.
Objectives 4 and 6
120. John Eliot met with little success in converting the New England Indians to Christianity because he
a0. allowed the Indians to blend their own religious ideas with Puritan religious ideas.
b0. insisted that converts reject traditional Indian culture and live like Europeans.
c0. preached his ideas only to Indian women.
d0. insisted that the Indians had to adhere strictly to the elaborate rituals of the Puritan church.
Objectives 1, 4, and 6
130. Jesuit missionaries in New France were more successful than Puritan missionaries in New England in converting Indians to Christianity for which of the following reasons?
a0. The Jesuits emphasized the simplicity of the worship experience; the Puritans employed elaborate rituals.
b0. The covenant of grace taught by the Jesuits was closer to Indians’ religious beliefs than was the covenant of works taught by the Puritans.
c0. The Jesuits understood that Christianity and Indian culture were compatible; the Puritans did not.
d0. The large French settlements convinced the Indians of the superiority of the Christian God; the small Puritan settlements made little impression.
Objectives 5, 6, and 7
140. New Englanders were unlike residents of the Chesapeake in which of the following ways?
a0. The children of New England parents were generally more independent at an earlier age.
b0. New Englanders cleared new fields yearly rather than using the same fields again and again.
c0. New Englanders had smaller families.
d0. Migrants to New England usually came as part of family groups.
150. “You have stept out of your place, you have rather bine a Husband than a Wife and a preacher than a Hearer; and a Magistrate than a Subject.” This quote supports the idea that the Puritan authorities
a0. allowed divorce when it could be proved that the wife had not been submissive to her husband.
b0. saw Anne Hutchinson as a threat because she challenged traditional gender roles.
c0. believed Anne Hutchinson to be a threat because she owned her own business.
d0. believed Anne Hutchinson to be a valuable asset to the community.
0Objectives 1 and 4
10. Contrast French and Spanish attempts to convert Native Americans to Christianity with similar attempts by the Puritans. Why did the Catholics succeed while the Protestants failed?
20. Discuss the importance of sugar cane in the colonization and development of the Lesser Antilles.
30. Discuss the factors that led the English to successfully colonize North America in the seventeenth century.
40. Describe the impact of the Chesapeake’s disease and demographic environment on the colonies of Maryland and Virginia.
50. Examine the headright system and discuss its impact on the social, economic, and political evolution of the Chesapeake colonies.
60. Examine the role of Puritan theology in the political, social, and economic evolution of Massachusetts Bay society.
10. a. Correct. As explained on page 23, several factors explain the success of the Black Robes in converting Indians to Christianity, but the most important factor was probably their ability to communicate over long distances through the written word.
b. No. In their efforts to convert Indians to Christianity, the Black Robes often resorted to the tactic of trying to undermine the authority of the Indians’ traditional religious leaders, the village shamans.
c. No. In the explanation for the success of Jesuit missionaries in converting Indians to Christianity, there is no indication that the traditional beliefs of the Indians were similar to Catholic beliefs.
d. No. Attempts by the Jesuit missionaries to convert Indians to Christianity by first persuading them to live near French settlements and adopt European lifestyles were not very successful. This implies that the Indians did not readily accept European culture and did not believe European culture to be superior to their own.
20. c. Correct. Again one can see the impact of the European presence in the New World on Native Americans. In addition to the goal of securing their traditional hunting territory, the Iroquois waged war in an effort to become the major supplier of pelts to the Europeans. Furthermore, the outcome of the war was in some measure decided by the weapons available to the Iroquois through their Dutch allies. See page 25.
a. No. Although the Hurons had been weakened by a recent epidemic, the Iroquois were not responsible and did not engage in germ warfare in their war against the Hurons.
b. No. The Iroquois were not “decisively defeated” in this war, and they would continue to pose a threat to European settlers for some time to come.
d. No. European negotiators did not mediate the dispute between the Iroquois and the Hurons.
30. d. Correct. Great profit could be made in the successful cultivation of sugar for sale in the European market. This lesson had been learned very early by the Spanish in the South Atlantic. See page 25.
a. No. Although many European nations established penal colonies (most notably Devil’s Island by France and Australia by England), this does not explain the interest that France, Holland, and England had in the Lesser Antilles. See page 25.
b. No. Although there was some interest in converting peoples in other lands to Christianity, this does not explain the interest that France, Holland, and England had in the Lesser Antilles. Furthermore, in the three countries mentioned, “religious leaders” did not have the kind of power implied in the statement. See page 25.
c. No. It is conceivable that these islands were used, to some extent, as “resupply” stations but not as “refueling.” When you are relying on wind power to “fuel” the sails of your vessel, there is no need for “refueling stations.” Furthermore, even if one were dealing with a resupply station, one would expect it to be farther from the North American mainland than were these islands. See page 25.
40. a. Correct. English Calvinists, known as Puritans, became more and more convinced during the early seventeenth century that the Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, were Satan’s representatives on Earth. Therefore, to accomplish their religious objectives, many Puritans decided to leave “corrupt” England and come to America. See page 28.
b. No. Dramatic social and economic change was one of the two major developments that led many English citizens to come to the New World in the seventeenth century. However, rather than losing economic power, the landowning elite generally became wealthier as a result of this change. See page 27.
c. No. The plague did sweep through England in 1665, leaving some seventy thousand people dead in London alone, but this fact is not one of the two major developments cited in the text as an explanation for the migration of some 200,000 English citizens to the New World in the seventeenth century. See page 27.
d. No. Although it is true that commercial rivalry between the British and the Dutch led to three Anglo-Dutch naval wars in the seventeenth century, these wars were not a major factor prompting English men and women to move to the New World. See page 28.
50. d. Correct. The Indians did not believe in individual landownership and did not believe that the land could be bought and sold absolutely. The English disagreed. See page 29.
a. No. Both Algonquian society and English society were oriented toward an agricultural lifestyle. See page 29.
b. No. Although it is true that there were differences in the hierarchies of the two societies, the English and Algonquian peoples both had clear political and social hierarchies. See page 29.
c. No. Although the beliefs of the Algonquians were considerably different from those of the English, both societies had deeply held religious beliefs. See page 29.
60. a. Correct. Because men who already owned land in the Chesapeake colonies could receive additional land by financing the passage of additional settlers, the headright system made it possible for Chesapeake landowners to establish large agricultural estates. See page 31.
b. No. The establishment of a society in which private landownership was allowed did not guarantee, nor did it result in, political stability. See page 31.
c. No. The cultivation of tobacco was introduced into the colony in 1611 by John Rolfe before the headright system was instituted. See page 29.
d. No. The Virginia Company introduced the headright system in 1617 in an effort to make the colony attractive to settlers and solve its financial problems, but the company continued to lose money and went bankrupt in 1624. See page 29.
70. c. Correct. Landowners in the Chesapeake wanted laborers to work their fields and, with that in mind, they were more interested in purchasing the labor of young males than that of young women. That, in part, is one of the reasons that most migrants to the region in the seventeenth century were young males between the ages of fifteen and twenty-four. See pages 31–32.
a. No. As a general rule, well-established people in the seventeenth century did not decide to leave their homeland and travel 3,000 miles to a wilderness. Furthermore, few well-established people would be willing to give up their freedom and become someone else’s servant for some seven years. See pages 31–32.
b. No. Although those in England who chose to become indentured servants in the Chesapeake were not from the upper class, it would be a mistake to label them as the “dregs” of English society. Dregs are the least desirable part of something or the sediment left from a liquid, such as “the dregs at the bottom of the coffee pot.” See pages 31–32.
d. No. In the Middle Colonies in the eighteenth century, most German immigrants came as “redemptioners.” Redemptioners usually came as members of family groups. However, this was not true of the indentured servants who came to the Chesapeake in the seventeenth century. See pages 31–32.
80. c. Correct. Immigrants made up a majority of the Chesapeake population throughout the seventeenth century. These immigrants often looked to groups of supporters in England to help them solve their problems and fight their battles for political and economic power. Such struggles created political instability. See page 32.
a. No. Since adult males in all the British colonies had to meet property qualifications to be eligible to vote, the assemblies could not have been controlled by “landless peasants.” See page 32.
b. No. Both colonies had representative assemblies and were not ruled from London in an autocratic manner. See page 32.
d. No. The number of slaves in the Chesapeake certainly increased in the late seventeenth century (see Chapter 3), and the fear of slave insurrections increased accordingly. However, such fear did not breed political chaos in the colonies. See page 32.
90. b. Correct. The Jamestown settlers were helped by the Powhatan Confederacy, and the Pilgrims received aid from the Pokanoket Indians and from Squanto, of the Pawtuxet tribe. See pages 28 and 32–33.
a. No. Although the Virginia Company approved the first representative assembly for the Virginia colony in 1619, Plymouth had to wait for more towns to be founded and the population to increase before it could create a representative assembly like the ones in Virginia and Maryland. See pages 28 and 32–33.
c. No. Although the Separatists did move to Plymouth from Holland in order to isolate themselves from the corrupting influences of the world, the Virginia Company sought profit when it founded Jamestown in 1607. See pages 28 and 32–33.
d. No. Although the Pilgrims were supposed to settle in territory under the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company, navigational errors caused them to land in the New England region in November 1620. Rudimentary legal authority for the colony was established by the Mayflower Compact. See pages 28 and 32–33.
100. c. Correct. Governor Winthrop believed that God had a covenant with the Puritans and that the Puritans in turn had a covenant with each other to work together to build God’s kingdom on Earth. This meant that one’s individual will had to be subordinated to the good of the community of the elect. See page 34.
a. No. John Winthrop and other Puritans believed that the Puritan church was the one true church. In practice this meant that non-Puritans were not granted freedom of worship in Massachusetts throughout most of the seventeenth century. See page 34.
b. No. The right to vote in seventeenth-century Massachusetts was extended to adult males who were members of the Puritan church and residents of the colony. See page 34.
d. No. The Puritans believed that God had divided human beings into different socio-economic classes. This is evident in the quotation from Winthrop’s sermon found in the text. See page 34.
110. a. Correct. The colony of Massachusetts distributed land quite differently from the way it was distributed in the Chesapeake colonies. The land-distribution system of Massachusetts helped further the communal ideal because people living in close proximity to each other could more easily fulfill the duty of working together as the “community of the elect” to build God’s kingdom on earth. See page 35.
b. No. Charles I (1625–1649) did not issue such a decree. In fact, the Massachusetts Bay Company decided to transfer the entire company, all stockholders, and the company’s charter to their new colony. Therefore, from its beginnings, Massachusetts Bay Colony enjoyed a great deal of autonomy. See page 35.
c. No. The headright system is associated with the southern colonies and not with the New England colonies. See page 31.
d. No. Most of the settlers who came to Massachusetts Bay colony were farmers, not merchants. See page 35.
120. b. Correct. Because John Eliot insisted that Indians undergo a total cultural transformation, his attempts to convert the New England Indians to Christianity were doomed. See page 35.
a. No. John Eliot expected the Indians to totally reject their own religious ideas and totally accept Puritan religious ideas. See page 35.
c. No. John Eliot expressed his ideas to Indian men as well as to women. See page 35.
d. No. Puritans associated elaborate rituals with the Catholic Church, which they considered an enemy religion. Therefore, elaborate rituals were not part of the Puritan religious service. See page 35.
130. c. Correct. The Jesuits did not insist that Indians totally reject their own culture for a European lifestyle. Since the Indians did not have to go through a total cultural transformation to be considered Christians in Jesuit eyes, the Jesuits had more success in converting the Indians. See page 36.
a. No. The Puritan religious service tended to be far simpler than the Catholic religious service. Furthermore, the Indians were drawn to the more elaborate Catholic service rather than to the simplicity of the Puritan service. See page 35.
b. No. The Jesuits taught that good works lead to salvation; the Puritans taught that one is saved only by the grace of God. The Indians found the Jesuit message more attractive than the Puritan message. See pages 35–36.
d. No. The French settlements were small; the Puritan settlements became large. As a result, the French did not encroach on tribal lands as much as the Puritans did. Since the French were not as intrusive, the Indians did not perceive them to be as great a threat as the Puritans. See page 36.
140. d. Correct. Seventeenth-century Chesapeake migrants came to America as individuals; New England Puritan migrants came as part of family groups. See pages 31 and 36.
a. No. For a number of reasons, New England parents were generally able to retain control over their children for a prolonged period of time but, because of the high death rate in the Chesapeake, families there were short-lived and children were freed from parental control at an earlier age. See pages 31 and 36.
b. No. Residents of the Chesapeake cleared new fields every few years; New Englanders used fertilizer and cultivated the same fields year after year. See pages 31 and 36.
c. No. Average New England families in the seventeenth century were significantly larger than Chesapeake families. New England women raised five to seven children; Chesapeake women raised one to three. See pages 31 and 36.
150. b. Correct. The quotation indicates that the Puritan authorities were disturbed not only by Anne Hutchinson’s religious beliefs, but by her challenge to traditional gender roles as well. See page 37.
a. No. The quotation does not pertain to Puritan beliefs about divorce. See page 37.
c. No. Anne Hutchinson was a midwife. Midwifery was an acceptable job for a woman in seventeenth-century Massachusetts. The statement is not an indication that she was seen as a threat because she “owned her own business.” See page 37.
d. No. The Puritan authorities meant their statement as a condemnation, rather than an approval, of Anne Hutchinson’s actions. See page 37.