All of the following are results of the scientific revolution on eighteenth-century European society EXCEPT
it led directly to the Enlightenment and a secular view of the universe.
it increased conflict between church and science in Protestant countries.
it led to a decline in witch hunts.
it accelerated the agricultural revolution.
it improved navigation and mapping
“As long as several men in assembly regard themselves as a single body they have only a single will which is concerned with their preservation. If the assembly needs new laws the first man to propose them merely says what all have already felt and everyone has already decided to do. This General Will is constant, unalterable, and pure. It is the best advice." When minorities begin to exercise an influence over the majority, the General Will ceases to be the will of all. The General Will then becomes subordinated to other wills.”
The above passage most likely comes from
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan
John Locke, Two Treatises on Government
Baron Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty
Which of the following believed that a monarch should be the “first servant of the state?”
Maria Theresa of Austria
Louis XIII of France
James I of England
Alexander III of Russia
Frederick the Great of Prussia
In which of the following countries did the agricultural revolution begin?
The most common non-farming occupation for a peasant female in the eighteenth century was in
Which of the following groups was most enthusiastic about the creation of a republic during the early years of the French Revolution?
Nobility of the robe
Which of the following reasons best explains the emergence of the cottage industry in England?
Vast amounts of cotton flowed into England from its American colonies.
Merchant-capitalists were eager to bypass powerful guilds.
The steam engine allowed for faster production of textiles.
New farming techniques allowed small farmers to compete against large landowners.
A large railroad network enabled more efficient transportation of goods.
The Granger Collection, New York
Which of the following events does the above image most likely represent?
Bread riots prior to the Russian Revolution in 1917
A mob relocating of the royal family from Versailles to Paris
The Pugachev Rebellion
The militant suffragette movement in England around 1900
Puritan women demanding the execution of Charles I
the emigration of large numbers of English people to the American colonies
the impact of the enclosure movement on the English countryside
France, by the perfidy of her leaders, has utterly disgraced the tone of lenient council in the cabinets of princes, and disarmed it of its most potent topics. She has sanctified the dark suspicious maxims of tyrannous distrust; and taught kings to tremble at (what will hereafter be called) the delusive plausibilities of moral politicians.
--Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
The above passage most likely reflects criticism aimed at
the Third Estate
the Second Estate
the First Estate
During the French Revolution a critical weakness of the Directory (1795-1799) was that it
sought to impose the Cult of the Supreme Being on French society.
failed to organize the military effectively against foreign threats.
relied heavily on the nobility which suffered the distrust of most French people.
relied too heavily on democratic measures for which French society was unprepared.
had leaders who only represented a narrow band of French society.
A relative advantage enjoyed by England during the early years of the industrial revolution included
its strong government-controlled mercantilist system
its vast pool of skilled laborers
its stable and responsive banking system
its adaption of foreign technologies for domestic manufacturing
its rich colonial markets in Africa
The Congress of Vienna (1814-15) had as one of its major goals
the permanent dismemberment of France
the restoration of Old Regime ruling families to their traditional thrones
the imposition of Christian uniformity throughout Europe
the right of self-determination for large populations of ethnic minorities
the development of a free-market economy among Europe’s largest countries
Which of the following became known for his strong opposition to both the increased number of “guest workers” and the creation of the European Union in the late-twentieth century?
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Pope John Paul II
A significant difference between fascism in Italy and Germany in the 1930s was
the existence of militarism in Germany.
the existence of private ownership in
Germany’s major industries
the glorification of the state and the cult of personality in Italy
the ruthlessness with which political opponents were silenced in Germany
the willingness of Germany to aid Spanish fascists in Spain’s civil war
“All of us … thought about freedom and injustice, about human rights, about democracy and political pluralism, about market economics and much else besides. Because we thought, we also dreamed. We dreamt, whether in or out of prison, of a Europe without barbed wire, high walls, artificially divided nations and gigantic stockpiles of weapons, of a Europe free of ‘blocs,’ of a European policy based on respect for human rights…”
The above quote, given in 1990, is most likely attributed to
Josep Broz Tito
Which of the following conclusions best represents the above graph concerning British government debt as a percentage of GNP?
The British economy tended to prosper most during wartime.
The industrial revolution led to significant deficit spending during the nineteenth century.
The Napoleonic Wars destroyed the British economy.
By the late-twentieth century, Britain had seen a dramatic increase in its debt compared to its industrial production.
Peacetime seems to have been beneficial for the British economy.
Source: The Waterbury Republican and The Middletown press
Which of the following is most likely the point of view of Edmund Valtman, the creator of the political cartoon above?
Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Lenin are deviating from traditional Marxism.
Mikhail Gorbachev is leading the Soviet Union to its death.
The Brezhnev Doctrine has failed to achieve its purpose.
Nikita Khrushchev’s secret speech at the Twentieth Party Congress is weakening the Communist party.
Karl Marx, as the father of communism, is proud of the accomplishments of the Soviet Union.