European history



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Third Quarter Comprehensive Exam

EUROPEAN HISTORY

SECTION I

Time—55 minutes

80 Questions
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.


  1. In his critique of the Roman Catholic Church, Martin Luther’s 95 Theses focused most on the

    1. corruption of Pope Alexander VI

    2. lack of Biblical justification for the selling of indulgences

    3. nepotism in the appointment church offices

    4. inaccuracies in the translation of the Latin Vulgate

    5. clerical ignorance that existed in many German parishes



  1. Which of the following Renaissance writers was well-known for his emphasis on courtly manners and achieving excellence in many different disciplines?

    1. Francesco Petrarch

    2. François Rabeleis

    3. Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples

    4. Baldassare Castiglione

    5. Lorenzo Valla



  1. “All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or the other of these ends, we say that he has been predestined to life or death…”

This statement reflects an essential view of




    1. Teresa of Avila

    2. John Calvin

    3. Martin Luther

    4. Pope Paul III

    5. Menno Simons




  1. Which of the following was most important in discovering the way in which the human body’s blood circulatory system works?

    1. Robert Koch

    2. Anton van Leeuwenhoek

    3. William Harvey

    4. Andreas Vesalius

    5. Edward Jenner






http://www.britishbattles.com/spanish-war/armada/el-escorial.jpg

El Escorial, 1563-1584




  1. The above image of the Escorial in Spain best reflects

    1. the height of baroque architecture in sixteenth-century Spain

    2. the failure of the reconquista to achieve its goals in the fifteenth century

    3. the excessive spending on grandiose projects that bankrupted the government of Philip II

    4. the strong connection between the monarchy and church authority

    5. the strong influence of mannerism in Spanish architecture




  1. Which of the following statements best explains how humanism influenced the Protestant Reformation?

    1. The secular character of humanism caused a counter reaction among religious leaders.

    2. The visual arts during the High Renaissance had a profound impact on religious reformers.

    3. The humanistic ideals of the Middle Ages encouraged a spiritual and personal relationship with God.

    4. New Latin and Greek translations of the Bible influenced Church reformers to challenge Catholic authority.

    5. Most religious leaders of the Protestant Reformation were prominent humanist writers who intensively studied the Greek and Roman classics.




  1. What was the significance of the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon to Isabella of Castile?

  1. It brought Spain into an alliance with France.

  2. It signaled the rise of the hacienda as a powerful political institution.

  3. It united the two largest states in Spain under one kingdom.

  4. It signaled the decline of the Holy Roman Empire.

  5. It ushered a new era of Muslim invasions into southern Spain.




  1. Which of the following denounced the secularism of the Renaissance and created a theocratic republic in Florence in the late-fifteenth century?

    1. Girolamo Savonarola

    2. Leonardo Bruni

    3. Cesare Borgia

    4. Cosimo d’ Medici

    5. Pope Julius II




  1. Which of the following statements best reflects the Elizabethan Settlement during late-sixteenth century?

    1. The doctrine of the Anglican Church was essentially Calvinist.

    2. The doctrine of the Anglican Church returned to its original form under Henry VIII.

    3. The doctrine of the Anglican Church was essentially Protestant with some Catholic rituals.

    4. The doctrine of the Anglican Church remained fiercely Catholic.

    5. The doctrine of the Anglican Church allowed clergy members to marry and reinstated monasteries.




  1. Which of the following further developed absolutism in France by introducing the intendant system?

  1. Henry IV

  2. Francis I

  3. Cardinal Richelieu

  4. Louis XIV

  5. Jean-Baptiste Colbert




  1. Which one of the following statements best characterizes the differences between John Locke’s “state of nature” and Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s “state of nature?”

  1. Locke called for reform; Rousseau was satisfied with the status quo.

  2. Rousseau’s “state of nature” did not have political connotations.

  3. Rousseau’s “state of nature” was one of economic equality.

  4. Locke’s “state of nature” ended with a “social contract,” while Rousseau’s did not.

  5. Locke’s “state of nature” envisioned a violent and dangerous society.




  1. While France developed absolutism during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the English monarchy was checked by

  1. a strong peasantry

  2. a few powerful and independent noble families

  3. a Bill of Rights guaranteeing individual freedoms

  4. the Anglican Church

  5. a strong Parliament








  1. The largest European import from the New World that required massive African slave labor in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was

    1. sugar

    2. tobacco

    3. gold and silver

    4. rice

    5. potatoes




  1. Which of the following treaties represented the biggest setback for France in terms of lost territory?

    1. Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, 1559

    2. Treaty of Westphalia, 1648

    3. Treaty of Paris, 1763

    4. Treaty of Paris, 1783

    5. Treaty of Versailles, 1919




  1. Which of the following pairs of philosophers are most closely identified with skepticism?

    1. Pico and Ficino

    2. Montaigne and Hume

    3. Bodin and Bossuet

    4. Kant and Hegel

    5. Dumas and Zola



  1. All of the following were new technologies used during World War One EXCEPT

    1. radio

    2. chemical weapons

    3. telephones

    4. submarines

    5. airplanes



  1. A major cause of the War of Austrian Succession was Frederick the Great’s violation of the

    1. Pragmatic Sanction

    2. Concordat of Bologna

    3. Edict of Fountainbleu

    4. Edict of Restitution

    5. asiento



  1. Which of the following rulers had the biggest impact on reshaping Russia’s social structure?

    1. Ivan the IV

    2. Michael Romanov

    3. Peter the Great

    4. Catherine the Great

    5. Alexander II



  1. Which of the following was most important in defending Protestant self-rule in the Netherlands in the late sixteenth century?

    1. Mary Tudor

    2. Charles V

    3. William of Orange

    4. Catherine de Medicis

    5. Henry IV



  1. Robert Walpole was notable for

  1. being the first English prime minister

  2. working to perfect the steam engine

  3. leading the British trade union movement

  4. innovation as a physicist

  5. writing romantic poetry



http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/keplerpoemslrg.jpg

  1. Which of the following people would most likely have had the above 1628 frontispiece included in his book?

    1. Nicolaus Copernicus

    2. Johannes Kepler

    3. Pope Pius IX

    4. Johannes Gutenberg

    5. Max Planck



  1. The historical significance of Prince Henry the Navigator was his

    1. centralization of power that became the model for the “New Monarchs”

    2. discovery of Brazil in the early-fifteenth century with the use of modern instruments

    3. failure to maintain Catholic dominance in the Low Countries

    4. encouragement of Portuguese expeditions on the western coast of Africa

    5. role in instigating the religiously-motivated French Civil Wars




  1. Which of the following is NOT a provision of the English Bill of Rights (1689)?

  1. Only Parliament can levy taxes.

  2. The king may maintain a standing army without the consent of Parliament.

  3. All rights must be made with the consent of Parliament.

  4. The right of trial by jury is guaranteed.

  5. Due process of law is guaranteed.




  1. Which of the following was the most important cause of the population explosion in Europe after 1750?

    1. The industrial revolution

    2. The eradication of the bubonic plague

    3. The agricultural revolution

    4. The smallpox vaccine

    5. The decrease in illegitimate births



  1. Women played important roles in all of the following movements EXCEPT

    1. the Protestant Reformation

    2. the French salon movement

    3. the French Revolution

    4. the Russian Revolution

    5. the socialist movement

  2. Which of the following was a result of the Thirty Years’ War?

  1. The independence of Belgium

  2. The decline of Lutheranism in northern Germany

  3. The death of approximately one-third of the German population

  4. The acquisition for Russia of territory on the Baltic Sea

  5. The end to the expansionist ambitions of Louis XIV




  1. Which of the following was most important in reducing the political power of the nobility in early modern Europe?

    1. Increase in the use of mercenary armies

    2. Introduction of firearms and cannon

    3. Use of the crossbow

    4. Rise in the influence of knights and vassals

    5. Naval warfare



  1. Which of the following had the largest impact on the development of deism in the eighteenth century?

    1. John Wesley and the emergence of Methodism.

    2. The universal laws of gravitation proposed by Isaac Newton.

    3. The rise of superstition due to natural calamities.

    4. European colonial penetration into the interior of Asia.

    5. The American and French Revolutions.



http://www.dl.ket.org/humanities/gallery/images/brueghel_.jpg

Peter Breughel, Peasant Wedding, c. 1565



  1. Which of the following statements best reflects the above painting?

    1. The artist’s technique demonstrates strong influences from the art of the Middle Ages.

    2. It is a quintessential example of High Renaissance painting in Italy.

    3. It exemplifies the religious ideals of the Northern Renaissance.

    4. It serves as a window into the ordinary lives of people in the Low Countries.

    5. It demonstrates the gender inequalities that existed in Renaissance society.



  1. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.

--Karl Marx

The above quotation helps explain which of the following?



    1. The failures of the Revolutions of 1848

    2. The failure of socialist revisionism in the late-nineteenth century

    3. The rising influence of the Eastern Orthodox Church in central Europe

    4. The triumph of the Paris Commune in 1871

    5. The atheism of the Bolshevik Revolution in the early twentieth century



  1. Which of the following is most closely associated with nineteenth-century nationalism?

    1. John Stuart Mill

    2. Friederich Engels

    3. Johann Gottfried Herder

    4. Keir Hardie

    5. Rosa Luxemburg



  1. The impact of the Versailles Treaty of 1919 on European diplomacy differed from the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) because the Congress of Vienna

    1. prevented a major world war for nearly a century

    2. promoted liberalism and capitalism throughout Europe

    3. created numerous independent states based on ethnic and linguistic unity

    4. failed to create a coalition of major countries that would ensure a balance of power

    5. toppled Old Regime monarchies and replaced them with new ruling families



  1. In the period from 1852 to 1871, when Napoleon III was leader, France could best be described as a(an)

    1. permanent republic

    2. absolute monarchy

    3. constitutional monarchy

    4. socialist commonwealth

    5. liberal democracy



  1. Which of the following best characterizes the condition of the middle class in western Europe in the mid-nineteenth century?

    1. Married women enjoyed increased job opportunities.

    2. The average family grew in size due to increased wealth.

    3. The standard of living decreased as industrialism replaced skilled craft occupations.

    4. Morality and education issues often dictated family decisions.

    5. Children were increasingly separated from their families due to the changing economy.



  1. All of the following are examples of conservative political measures in Europe between 1815 and 1850 EXCEPT

    1. the Carlsbad Decrees

    2. the Peterloo Massacre

    3. the Holy Alliance

    4. the repeal of the Corn Laws

    5. the Congress System



  1. A distinguishing feature of the Austrian Empire in the nineteenth century was its

    1. incorporation of an influential liberal parliament alongside a conservative monarchy

    2. struggle to resolve conflicts among large groups of ethnic minorities

    3. cultural unity and political cohesion compared to other eastern European states

    4. rapid industrialization and dominance of manufacturing in central Europe

    5. military dominance after 1850





  1. The assumption of the German throne by Wilhelm II in 1888 led to the

    1. rise of the middle class as Germany’s most influential social class

    2. systematic oppression of German Catholics

    3. decline in the stability of European diplomatic arrangements

    4. abolition of serfdom throughout most of the German states

    5. increase in military and economic cooperation between Germany and Russia



  1. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the “Eastern Question” of the late-nineteenth century?

    1. European empires were competing to dominate trade in Asia.

    2. The Great Powers struggled over who would control Balkan territories liberated from the Ottoman Empire.

    3. Europeans were interested in expanding its economic influence throughout the Middle East.

    4. Russia and Japan became increasingly hostile towards one another regarding northeastern China.

    5. A great debate occurred in Japan regarding the incorporation of European industrial and military methods.



  1. All of the following were significant causes of the French Revolution EXCEPT

    1. the high cost of wars throughout the eighteenth century

    2. the liberal influences of the American Revolution

    3. the refusal of French nobles to grant tax increases requested by Louis XVI

    4. poor harvests and economic depression in the 1780s

    5. the oppressive conditions among the French peasantry



  1. Recent challenges to the traditional explanation of the origins of the French Revolution have centered on the fact that

  1. the Old Regime did not correspond to the social reality by the late-eighteenth century.

  2. the clergy played a liberal role in French society.

  3. the revolution broke out all over France, not just in Paris.

  4. the lower middle class was actually more reactionary than radical.

  5. the nobility and upper bourgeoisie were not necessarily enemies.



  1. By 1850, the industrialism in Continental Europe differed from industrialism in England because

    1. few textiles were produced on the Continent.

    2. industrialism in Continental countries often depended heavily on government investment.

    3. Continental countries utilized railroads to a much larger extent than England did.

    4. there were fewer workers on the Continent which resulted in frequent labor shortages.

    5. workers in England experienced a far lower standard of living than their counterparts on the Continent.



  1. A major impact of the Scientific Revolution on European society between 1600 and 1750 was the

    1. official support of scientific discoveries in Catholic countries such as Spain and Italy

    2. decreased international cooperation in the scientific community due to competition between nation-states

    3. decline in mortality rates due to medical advances

    4. decline in the persecution of witches

    5. growth of military power in the Holy Roman Empire and Poland



  1. Classical liberalism in late-eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Europe can best be described as

    1. favoring economic policies to promote economic equality

    2. favoring representative government with limited male suffrage

    3. favoring mercantilism in government economic policies

    4. favoring the interests of the aristocracy rather than the middle class

    5. rejecting any form of monarchy in government



  1. “Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man… Considering how little men value other men; from whence continually arise amongst them, emulation, quarrels, factions, and at last war, to the destroying of one another, and diminution of their strength against a common enemy; it is necessary that there be laws of honor.. And as the power, so also the honor of the sovereign, ought to be greater than that of any or all the subjects. For in the sovereignty is the fountain of honor.”

The above quote is most likely attributed to

    1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    2. Mikhail Bakunin

    3. John Locke

    4. Maximilien Robespierre

    5. Thomas Hobbes



  1. All of the following were major features of the Industrial Revolution in Europe EXCEPT

    1. rubber

    2. iron

    3. railroads

    4. coal

    5. steam power

image:peter paul rubens 068.jpg

Peter Paul Rubens, The Elevation of the Cross



  1. The painting shown above, The Elevation of the Cross by Peter Paul Rubens, is an example of which of the following styles?

    1. High Renaissance

    2. Northern Renaissance

    3. Baroque

    4. French classicism

    5. Dutch style

africa, 1914

  1. Which of the following philosophies was most responsible for influencing the political situation seen in the above map?

    1. Social Darwinism

    2. Humanitarianism

    3. Economic liberalism

    4. Mercantilism

    5. Totalitarianism



  1. Which of the following statements best describes why serfdom between 1600 and 1800 grew in eastern Europe but had largely disappeared in western Europe?

    1. Peasants were far more numerous in western Europe and thus more difficult to control.

    2. The urban nature of western Europe did not allow for serfdom.

    3. Eastern Europe did not suffer catastrophes due to disease and famine that continually plagued western Europe.

    4. Nobles tended to be far more powerful in eastern Europe than in western Europe.

    5. The Enlightenment discouraged the institution of serfdom in western Europe.



  1. “…It is not by speeches and majority resolutions that the great questions of the time are decided – that was the big mistake of 1848 and 1849 – but by iron and blood.

-- Otto von Bismarck, 1882

Which of the following statements best reflects the above quote?



    1. Bismarck sought to make Prussia the nucleus of a newly unified Germany.

    2. Bismarck sought Germany’s military conquest of Europe.

    3. Bismarck sought to oppress Jews throughout the German states.

    4. Bismarck sought to limit the power of the German Reichstag.

    5. Bismarck sought to support the major goals of the German Socialist Party.



  1. Which of the following trends best reflects the average western European family by 1900?

    1. Lower numbers of children per family on average

    2. Movement away from a single nuclear family living in a single household

    3. Higher rate of well-educated women entering the workforce

    4. Increasingly over-crowded living conditions

    5. Increased reliance on child labor to help families meet rising living expenses



  1. Which of the following Europeans promoted Zionism, a proposal for a new Jewish homeland in Palestine?

    1. Flora Tristan

    2. Theodore Herzl

    3. Karl Lueger

    4. Benjamin Disraeli

    5. Keir Hardie



  1. Which of the following was the first European country to dominate the interior of sub-Saharan Africa after 1870?

    1. Italy

    2. Germany

    3. Belgium

    4. Portugal

    5. France



  1. Napoleon’s plan to invade England was thwarted by the

    1. Battle of Trafalgar

    2. Battle of Lepanto

    3. Battle of Borodino

    4. Peninsular War

    5. Battle of Austerlitz



  1. Which of the following composers was most important in developing atonal music and the twelve-tone row?

    1. Richard Wagner

    2. Arnold Schönberg

    3. Claude Debussy

    4. Richard Strauss

    5. Wassily Kandinsky




http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=45929&rendtypeid=4 The Bettman Archive

The National Razor”



  1. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above French Revolutionary-era political cartoon?

(A) The construction of guillotines became a major industry in France during the revolution.

  1. Though regrettable, executions were necessary to preserve the revolution.

  2. The Guillotine was a humane instrument of mercy inspired by Enlightenment views.

  3. The Reign of Terror had become excessive in its violence.

  4. Robespierre’s leadership was effective in inspiring the masses.



  1. Which of the following succeeded in gaining its permanent independence in the period between 1815 and 1848?

    1. Poland

    2. Hungary

    3. Italy

    4. Greece

    5. Switzerland



  1. The middle-class feminists of England in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries

    1. worked for property rights and then voting rights for women

    2. were influenced by utopian socialism

    3. supported strong nationalistic goals and imperialist ventures

    4. rejected the militant tactics of earlier feminists

    5. generally supported separate spheres for men and women



  1. Which of the following events had the most divisive and negative impact on politics within the country in which it occurred?

    1. The Ems Dispatch

    2. The “Humiliation of Olmutz”

    3. The Dreyfus Affair

    4. The Kruger Telegram

    5. The Fashoda Crisis



  1. The Russian Revolution in February 1917 was started by

    1. Bolshevik Revolutionaries

    2. the Petrograd Soviet

    3. Grigorii Rasputin

    4. a mutiny by sailors

    5. women rioting for bread




  1. During the late-nineteenth century, Friedrich Nietzsche argued that

    1. conventional morality was suffocating individual achievement.

    2. philosophy is only the logical clarification of thought.

    3. human beings are motivated by primal desires.

    4. religious belief provided stability in an absurd world.

    5. the masses contained wisdom for the creation of a new and better society.



  1. Which of the following rulers could be considered the most powerful ruler in the world during his time?

    1. Ludovico the Moor

    2. Sulieman the Magnificent

    3. Cosimo d’ Medici

    4. Joseph II

    5. Napoleon III



  1. All of the following became a newly independent country as a result of World War One EXCEPT

    1. Czechoslovakia

    2. Yugoslavia

    3. Albania

    4. Poland

    5. Finland



  1. Great Britain entered World War One as a direct response to

    1. the sinking of the Lusitania

    2. Germany’s naval blockade of European ports

    3. Germany’s invasion of Belgium

    4. Austria-Hungary’s invasion of Serbia

    5. the Russian Revolution



  1. The psychological ideas of Sigmund Freud were influential after World War One because they

    1. renewed public interest in the physics of Isaac Newton

    2. encouraged violent revolution if governments were overly oppressive

    3. theorized that human society would continue to evolve in positive ways even though the war was catastrophic

    4. validated the views of Social Darwinists

    5. reflected the irrational nature of the human subconscious



  1. Germany failed to achieve its objective of defeating France quickly at the outset of World War One as a result of the

    1. Battle of Verdun

    2. Battle of the Somme

    3. Battle of the Marne

    4. Meuse-Argonne Offensive

    5. Gallipoli Campaign



  1. The “New Science” in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries was significant because it

    1. established Albert Einstein’s concept of the universe as more stable and knowable than the universe of Isaac Newton

    2. challenged Charles Darwin’s underlying principles on evolution

    3. created uncertainties in the ability of science to provide absolute answers in physics and astronomy

    4. disproved previously held theories dealing with sub-atomic energy

    5. led to the rise of positivism by such thinkers as Auguste Comte




  1. The French Revolution and the Bolshevik Revolution were similar in that

    1. both dramatically increased the equality of women.

    2. both found themselves alone against foreign powers.

    3. both were influenced to some extent by the ideas of Karl Marx.

    4. both supported international wars to rally the people.

    5. both were directly responsible for overthrowing the monarchy.



  1. Of the following, which pair of authors is most closely associated with realism after 1850?

  1. Zola and Ibsen

  2. Wordsworth and Coleridge

  3. Moliere and Racine

  4. Scott and Dumas

  5. Spencer and Huxley



  1. The fatal blunder made by Russia’s Provisional Government in 1917 was

    1. continuing the war effort

    2. confiscating and redistributing noble lands

    3. instituting legal and political equality

    4. suppressing the Petrograd Soviet

    5. refusing Lenin’s participation in the government



  1. Which of the following was most responsible for helping Germany to recover economically during the 1920s?

    1. The Locarno Pact

    2. The Dawes Plan

    3. The Ruhr Crisis

    4. Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty

    5. The Kellogg-Briand Pact



  1. The political party that emerged as the leader of the Weimar Republic after World War I was the

    1. National Socialist German Worker’s Party

    2. Catholic Center Party

    3. Communist Party

    4. Democratic Socialist Party

    5. Conservative Party



  1. The most notable critic of European imperialism in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries was

    1. Herbert Spencer

    2. Jules Ferry

    3. J. A. Hobson

    4. Rudyard Kipling

    5. Cecil Rhodes



  1. Which of the following best represents the ideas of John Maynard Keynes regarding the Versailles Treaty (1919)?

    1. He fully supported Georges Clemenceau’s objectives regarding French economic and military security.

    2. He condemned Britain’s refusal to join the League of Nations.

    3. He argued that a healthy German economy was crucial to Europe’s economic recovery from the war.

    4. He called for increased military spending.

    5. He criticized the League of Nations as a ploy by the United States to dominate Europe economically.




  1. European women generally experienced which of the following conditions during World War One?

    1. A return to more traditional gender roles.

    2. Increased combat roles in the military.

    3. Full legal equality.

    4. Highly restrictive wartime legislation regulating marriage and birth rates.

    5. Increased economic opportunities in industry and transportation.



  1. Which of the following best reflects the political philosophy of Vladimir Lenin?

    1. Socialist revisionism was the most effective method to gain political power.

    2. A socialist revolution could only occur in a fully industrialized country.

    3. World War I was an effective opportunity for exporting an international communist revolution.

    4. The “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” could only occur through the leadership of a small revolutionary elite.

    5. Marx’s prediction of violent revolution was no longer necessary given the power of the communist party in Russia.



  1. Which of the following statements regarding Bauhaus movement in Germany is true?

    1. It reflected the ideals of the newly unified Germany Empire.

    2. It strongly rejected middle-class values.

    3. It emphasized art for art’s sake.

    4. It emphasized that the form of a building should follow its function.

    5. It combined Dadaism and Futurism to achieve total abstraction.



  1. As a result of the Congress of Berlin in 1878

    1. Russia gained large territories in the Black Sea Region.

    2. Germany and Russia made a military alliance.

    3. new states of Romania and Serbia were created.

    4. the Austria-Hungarian Empire lost significant territory in the Balkans.

    5. the Ottoman Empire gained sole control of the Danubian principalities.



http://www.inetours.com/england/london/images/hop/hop_bgbn_8251.jpg

Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), London (1836-1868)



  1. The above structure is of which architectural style?

    1. Gothic revival

    2. Humanist

    3. Neoclassical

    4. Baroque

    5. Romanesque





Age of Workers in Cotton Mills in Lancashire, England in 1833

Age

Males

Females

under 11

246

155

11 - 16

1,169

1,123

17 - 21

736

1,240

22 - 26

612

780

27 - 31

355

295

32 - 36

215

100

37 - 41

168

81

42 - 46

98

38

47 - 51

88

23

52 - 56

41

4

57 - 61

28

3



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