80 Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
In his critique of the Roman Catholic Church, Martin Luther’s 95 Theses focused most on the
corruption of Pope Alexander VI
lack of Biblical justification for the selling of indulgences
nepotism in the appointment church offices
inaccuracies in the translation of the Latin Vulgate
clerical ignorance that existed in many German parishes
Which of the following Renaissance writers was well-known for his emphasis on courtly manners and achieving excellence in many different disciplines?
Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples
“All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or the other of these ends, we say that he has been predestined to life or death…”
This statement reflects an essential view of
Teresa of Avila
Pope Paul III
Which of the following was most important in discovering the way in which the human body’s blood circulatory system works?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
El Escorial, 1563-1584
The above image of the Escorial in Spain best reflects
the height of baroque architecture in sixteenth-century Spain
the failure of the reconquista to achieve its goals in the fifteenth century
the excessive spending on grandiose projects that bankrupted the government of Philip II
the high cost of wars throughout the eighteenth century
the liberal influences of the American Revolution
the refusal of French nobles to grant tax increases requested by Louis XVI
poor harvests and economic depression in the 1780s
the oppressive conditions among the French peasantry
Recent challenges to the traditional explanation of the origins of the French Revolution have centered on the fact that
the Old Regime did not correspond to the social reality by the late-eighteenth century.
the clergy played a liberal role in French society.
the revolution broke out all over France, not just in Paris.
the lower middle class was actually more reactionary than radical.
the nobility and upper bourgeoisie were not necessarily enemies.
By 1850, the industrialism in Continental Europe differed from industrialism in England because
few textiles were produced on the Continent.
industrialism in Continental countries often depended heavily on government investment.
Continental countries utilized railroads to a much larger extent than England did.
there were fewer workers on the Continent which resulted in frequent labor shortages.
workers in England experienced a far lower standard of living than their counterparts on the Continent.
A major impact of the Scientific Revolution on European society between 1600 and 1750 was the
official support of scientific discoveries in Catholic countries such as Spain and Italy
decreased international cooperation in the scientific community due to competition between nation-states
decline in mortality rates due to medical advances
decline in the persecution of witches
growth of military power in the Holy Roman Empire and Poland
Classical liberalism in late-eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Europe can best be described as
favoring economic policies to promote economic equality
favoring representative government with limited male suffrage
favoring mercantilism in government economic policies
favoring the interests of the aristocracy rather than the middle class
rejecting any form of monarchy in government
“Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man… Considering how little men value other men; from whence continually arise amongst them, emulation, quarrels, factions, and at last war, to the destroying of one another, and diminution of their strength against a common enemy; it is necessary that there be laws of honor.. And as the power, so also the honor of the sovereign, ought to be greater than that of any or all the subjects. For in the sovereignty is the fountain of honor.”
The above quote is most likely attributed to
All of the following were major features of the Industrial Revolution in Europe EXCEPT
Peter Paul Rubens, The Elevation of the Cross
The painting shown above, The Elevation of the Cross by Peter Paul Rubens, is an example of which of the following styles?
Which of the following philosophies was most responsible for influencing the political situation seen in the above map?
Which of the following statements best describes why serfdom between 1600 and 1800 grew in eastern Europe but had largely disappeared in western Europe?
Peasants were far more numerous in western Europe and thus more difficult to control.
The urban nature of western Europe did not allow for serfdom.
Eastern Europe did not suffer catastrophes due to disease and famine that continually plagued western Europe.
Nobles tended to be far more powerful in eastern Europe than in western Europe.
The Enlightenment discouraged the institution of serfdom in western Europe.
“…It is not by speeches and majority resolutions that the great questions of the time are decided – that was the big mistake of 1848 and 1849 – but by iron and blood.
-- Otto von Bismarck, 1882
Which of the following statements best reflects the above quote?
Bismarck sought to make Prussia the nucleus of a newly unified Germany.
Bismarck sought Germany’s military conquest of Europe.
Bismarck sought to oppress Jews throughout the German states.
Bismarck sought to limit the power of the German Reichstag.
Bismarck sought to support the major goals of the German Socialist Party.
Which of the following trends best reflects the average western European family by 1900?
Lower numbers of children per family on average
Movement away from a single nuclear family living in a single household
Higher rate of well-educated women entering the workforce
Increasingly over-crowded living conditions
Increased reliance on child labor to help families meet rising living expenses
Which of the following Europeans promoted Zionism, a proposal for a new Jewish homeland in Palestine?
Which of the following was the first European country to dominate the interior of sub-Saharan Africa after 1870?