Eurocentrism k – gdi 2013 1nc shell 1nc – Eurocentrism shapes traditional policymaking knowledge production – the state, and democratic processes are universalized and spread with policies like the plan Frankzi,


State representations distance us from real world representations of politics – the policymaking paradigm guarantees imperialism



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State representations distance us from real world representations of politics – the policymaking paradigm guarantees imperialism


Reid-Brinkley, University of Pittsburgh Assistant Professor Communication, 8

[Shanara Reid-Brinkley, Rhetoric PhD & Prof @ Pitt, and the most competitively successful black woman in CEDA history, “The Harsh Realities Of “Acting Black”: How African-American Policy Debaters Negotiate Representation Through Racial Performance And Style”, http://www.comm.pitt.edu/faculty/documents/reid-brinkley_shanara_r_200805_phd.pdf, accessed 7/7/13)


Mitchell observes that the stance of the policymaker in debate comes with a “sense of detachment associated with the spectator posture.”115 In other words, its participants are able to engage in debates where they are able to distance themselves from the events that are the subjects of debates. Debaters can throw around terms like torture, terrorism, genocide and nuclear war without blinking. Debate simulations can only serve to distance the debaters from real world participation in the political contexts they debate about. As William Shanahan remarks:

“…the topic established a relationship through interpellation that inhered irrespective of what the particular political affinities of the debaters were. The relationship was both political and ethical, and needed to be debated as such. When we blithely call for United States Federal Government policymaking, we are not immune to the colonialist legacy that establishes our place on this continent. We cannot wish away the horrific atrocities perpetrated everyday in our name simply by refusing to acknowledge these implications” (emphasis in original).116

The “objective” stance of the policymaker is an impersonal or imperialist persona. The policymaker relies upon “acceptable” forms of evidence, engaging in logical discussion, producing rational thoughts. As Shanahan, and the Louisville debaters’ note, such a stance is integrally linked to the normative, historical and contemporary practices of power that produce and maintain varying networks of oppression. In other words, the discursive practices of policy-oriented debate are developed within, through and from systems of power and privilege. Thus, these practices are critically implicated in the maintenance of hegemony.



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