Essential questions

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Westward Expansion


  1. What are the basic provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments?

  2. What were the Reconstruction policies for the South?

  3. What were the lasting impacts of the actions of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee and Frederick Douglass?

  4. What is racial segregation?

  5. How were African Americans discriminated against?

  6. How did African Americans respond to discrimination and “Jim Crow” laws?

Reconstruction and African American Challenges


Abraham Lincoln Robert E. Lee 13th Amendment 14th Amendment

15th Amendment Black Codes Sharecroppers Civil Rights Act of 1866 Carpetbaggers Freedmen’s Bureau Segregation Jim Crow Laws

Frederick Douglass Compromise of 1877 W.E.B. Dubois Booker T. Washington

Ten Percent Plan


Confederate leaders



Wade-Davis Bill


abolish slavery


higher wages





_____Soldiers_____________ from the North supervised the South


____Carpetbaggers________ from the North took advantage of the South


___Rights_________________ for African Americans were gained as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which also authorized the use of federal troops for its enforcement


___Establishment_____________ of the Freedmen’s Bureau to aid former enslaved African Americans in the South


___African Americans__________ could hold public office in the South


__Military_______________ leaders from the South could not hold public office

Background Essay Questions and Answers

  1. Why was 1876 an important year for America?

    1. It was the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.

  1. Who ran for President in 1876? What were their political parties?

    1. Rutherford B. Hayes  Republican

    2. Samuel J. Tilden  Democatic

  1. An “irony” is something you don’t expect, something that doesn’t seem to fit. What was the irony of the history that occurred in 1876?

    1. The election of 1876 officially crushed the dream for millions of black Americans because the compromise led to another rise in power for all-white governments in the South.

  1. What was the Compromise of 1877? Who got what?

    1. After a close election, the electoral college decided that Republican Hayes could be President if he removed federal troops from the South, thus appeasing the Democratic South.

  1. Describe each of the Amendments to the Constitution

    1. 13th Amendment: Ended slavery

    1. 14th Amendment: All people born in the United States are citizens; all citizens are guaranteed equal protection under the law

    1. 15th Amendment: Made it illegal to deny someone the right to vote based on race

Abraham Lincoln

  • Made the Reconstruction plan calling for


Robert E. Lee

  • Urged Southerners to reconcile with Northerners at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to continue to fight

Booker T. Washington

  • Believed equality could be achieved through vocational education (job training)

  • Accepted social segregation

W.E.B. Dubois

  • Believed in full social, civil, political, and economic rights for African Americans

Frederick Douglass

  • Fought for adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights

  • Was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all

Booker T. Washington & W.E.B. Dubois





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