and JFK and LBJ’s War in Vietnam, 1960-1968 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:
1. What were the goals, achievements, and failures of the diverse 1960s Civil Rights Movement?
2. What are the circumstances of the assassination of JFK, Malcolm X, MLK, and RFK?
3. Why and how did America (JFK/LBJ administrations) get involved in the war in Vietnam? How did it support the South Vietnamese and fight on its own? What were the effects on Vietnam and America?
# 1 In the early 1960s, the continuing pressures of AA civil rights groups, plus growing public sympathy, forced the passage of new social justice (equality) legislation. Women, Latino Americans, Native Americans, and disabled Americans adapted AA civil rights tactics to achieve their own goals of equality. Meanwhile, the Cold War tensions between the US and the SU continued, as the two nations came into conflict in Germany and Cuba.
# 2 The fear of communist expansion led the US to become increasingly involved in Vietnam. This meant war—America’s longest war. As the war dragged on, American support began to erode. The combination of negative public opinion and the inability of the military to achieve clear-cut victory led to a gradual withdrawal from the war. Meanwhile, great social and cultural changes were taking place in many parts of American society.
# 1 The 1960s were a tumultuous era in American society. During this period: 1) the struggle for civil rights continued and broadened to other subgroups 2) the women’s rights movement organized 3) other groups, including Native Americans, struggled for equality 4) JFK’s New Frontier and LBJ’s Great Society programs expanded upon FDR’s New Deal, and 5) the Cold War affected foreign policy in Latin America
# 2 Fears of Communist expansion in Southeast Asia led to American involvement in the Vietnam War. During this period: 1) LBJ escalated the war 2) student protests became part of the anti-war movement 3) the political and social upheaval of the 1960s divided Americans and 4) Richard Milhous Nixon ((RMN)) oversaw a cease fire agreement that allowed for US withdrawal from Vietnam
KEY THEMES AND CONCEPTS: PRESTIGE
1) Citizenship: How did the AA Civil Rights Movement inspire others to struggle to achieve greater equality?
2) Government: How did JFK and LBJ continue to expand upon traditions from the New Deal?
3) Foreign Policy: How did the antagonism between the US and the SU bring the two nations to the brink of war? Why did the US become involved in Vietnam? How did JFK, LBJ, and RMN impact the course of the war?
4) Change:What social and cultural changes developed in the 1960s?
5) Constitutional Principles: How did Congress expand and then limit the power of the POTUS in wartime?
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Lyndon Baines Johnson, Richard M. Nixon, Henry Kissinger, James Meredith, Medgar Evers, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez
civil disobedience, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Equal Rights Amendment, Affirmative Action, United Farm Workers, American Indian Movement (AIM), mainstreaming, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, New Frontier, Great Society, Bay of Pigs Invasion/Fiasco, Cuban Missile Crisis, Berlin Wall, Letter from a Birmingham Jail
SIGNIFICANT SCOTUS CASES
Mapp v. Ohio (1961); Gideon v. Wainwright (1963); Miranda v. Arizona (1966); Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
A. THE KENNEDY (JFK) YEARS
1. Historic election of 1960, cabinet, and family
2. The New Frontier: dreams and promises
a. Civil Rights Actions
1) James Meredith at the University of Mississippi (threats)