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Theodore Roosevelt Papers; Series 1, Reels 28/ 30/ 65; Roosevelt Study Centre, Middleburg , The Netherlands



Dispatches from United States Consuls in Curacao, Netherlands and West Indies T197 Roll 12, No.49; Roosevelt Study Centre, Middleburg , The Netherlands

1Richard Lowry & Ramesh Ponnuru, “An Exceptional Debate: The Obama administration’s assault on American identity,” National Review Online URL : http://www.nationalreview.com/nrd/article/?q=M2FhMTg4Njk0NTQwMmFlMmYzZDg2YzgyYjdmYjhhMzU=

2 Norman Etherington, Theories of Imperialism: War, Conquest and Capital (London, 1984) pp.3-4

3 See E.M. Winslow’s The Pattern of Imperialism: A study in the theories of Power (New York, 1948) pp. 94-95

4 J.A. Hobson, Imperialism, A Study (London, 1902) pp. 379-381

5 Etherington, p 82

6 Winslow, p 94

7 Ibid. p 98

8 Etherington, p 82

9 Ibid, p 6

10 Ibid, pp. 7-9

11 Ibid, p 14

12 Ibid, p 178

13 Leonard Woolf, Empire & commerce in Africa : a study in economic imperialism (London, 1920) pp. 14-15

14 Stephen A. Flanders, Carl N. Flanders, Dictionary of American foreign affairs (New York, 1993) p 281

15 Warren Zimmermann, First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power (New York, 2002) p 418

16 Ibid, p 493

17 Ibid, p 500

18 Akira Iriye, From Nationalism to Internationalism: U.S. Foreign Policy to 1914 (London, 1977), p 177

19 Ibid, pp. 181-182

20 Richard A. Collin, Theodore Roosevelt’s Caribbean: The Panama Canal, the Monroe Doctrine, and the Latin American Context (Baton Rouge, 1990)

21 James C. Thomson Jr., Sentimental Imperialists: The American Experience in East Asia (New York, 1981) p 96

22 Ibid, p 101

23 Ibid, p 102

24 See Julius William Pratt, Expansionists of 1898: the acquisition of Hawaii and the Spanish islands (Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press 1936)

25 William Appleman Williams. Empire as a Way of Life (Oxford, 1980), pg. 112

26 See Thomas J. McCormick China Market: America’s Quest for Informal Empire, 1893-1901 (Chicago, 1967)

27 Julian Go. Patterns of Empire The British and American Empires 1688 to the Present (New York, 2011) pg. 15

28 Ibid, pg. 68

29 Ibid.

30 Flanders, p 282

31 Ibid, p 283

32 Ibid, p 283

33 Modern Imperial Formations and the End of American Exceptionalism. Clara Altman (Brandeis University); Published on H-Empire (May, 2012) Retrieved on 7/7/12 from http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=35292

34 David Healy, Drive to Hegemony: The United States in the Caribbean 1898-1917 (Wisconsin, 1988) p 72

35 Ibid, p 74

36 Raimund Lammersdorf, The Advantages of Cooperation: German-American Friendship as a Fundamental Principle of German Weltpolitik and Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy; in Confrontation and Co-operation: Germany and the United States in the Era of World War I: 1900-1924 ,edited by Hans-Jürgen Schröder,(Oxford 1993) pp. 90-91

37 John Braeman, The New Left and American Foreign Policy during the Age of Normalcy: A Re-Examination The Business History Review , Vol. 57, No. 1 (Spring, 1983), pp. 73-104

38 John Lewis Gaddis, “New Conceptual Approaches to the Study of American Foreign Relations: Interdisciplinary Perspectives,” Diplomatic History 14 (Summer 1990): 407.

39 See Vincent Ferraro, "Dependency Theory: An Introduction," in The Development Economics Reader, ed. Giorgio Secondi (London: Routledge, 2008), pp. 58-64

40 Richard H. Collin, Symbiosis versus Hegemony: New Directions in the Foreign Relations Historiography of Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft Diplomatic History, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer 1995): 473

41 Ibid

42 Ibid, pp. 474-475

43 Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattleart, How to read Donald Duck: Imperialist Ideology in the Disney Comic, ed. and trans. David Kunzle (New York, 1975)

44 Allan Nevins, Introduction to Dwight C. Miner, The Fight for the Panama Route: The Story of the Spooner Act and the Hay-Herran Treaty (New York, 1940)

45 Collin, pp. 477-478

46 Ibid p 479

47 Edward P. Crapol, “Coming to Terms with Empire: The Historiography of Late Nineteenth-Century American Foreign Relations,” Diplomatic History 16 (Fall 1992) pp. 573-597

48 Collin, p 485

49 Ibid, p 494

50 Ibid, pp. 495-497

51 Graubard, p 125.

52 Frank Ninkovich, Theodore Roosevelt: Civilization as Ideology. Diplomatic History, Vol. 10, Issue 3 (Summer 1986): pp. 221–245.

53 There are many examples, amongst them: Stephen Graubard, The Presidents: The Transformation of the American Presidency from Theodore Roosevelt to Barack Obama (London, 2009); Walter LaFeber The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad since 1750 (New York, 1989) pp. 241-242

54 Walter LaFeber, The American Age: United States Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad since 1750 (New York, 1989) p 242

55 Dexter Perkins, Hands Off: A History of the Monroe Doctrine (Boston 1946) p 248

56 Ibid

57 Richard M. Abrams, United States Intervention Abroad: The First Quarter Century; The American Historical Review , Vol. 79, No. 1 (Feb., 1974), pp. 72-102

58 Paulo E. Coletta The Presidency of William Howard Taft (University Press of Kansas, 1973)

59 Akira Iriye, From Nationalism to Internationalism: U.S. Foreign Policy to 1914 (London, 1977) p 231

60 Walter LaFeber, The Cambridge History of American Foreign Relations. Volume 2, The American Search for Opportunity, 1865-1913 (Cambridge, 1993) p 233

61 Collin, p 491

62 David Healy, Drive to Hegemony: The United States in the Caribbean, 1898-1917 (Madison, 1988) pp. 145-163

63 Collin, p 492

64 Stephen Graubard, The Presidents: The Transformation of the American Presidency from Theodore Roosevelt to Barack Obama pp. 127-147

65 Peter H. Smith, Talons of the Eagle: Dynamics of U.S.-Latin American Relations (Oxford University Press, 2000) pp. 56-57

66 Crapol, p 589

67 Louis Fisher, The Law: Presidential Inherent Power: The “Sole Organ” Doctrine. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37: 139–152. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-5705.2007.02589.x

68 John Milton Cooper Jr. Pivotal Decades: The United States 1900-1920 (New York, 1990) pg. 7

69 Ibid. pp. 7-8

70 Ibid. pg. 8

71 Ibid. pg. 15

72 David H. Burton. Theodore Roosevelt's Social Darwinism and Views on Imperialism Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1965), pp. 103-118

73 Jeffrey A. Engel (2008): The Democratic Language of American Imperialism: Race, Order, and Theodore Roosevelt's Personifications of Foreign Policy Evil, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 19:4, 671-689

74 See Burton (1965), above.

75 Ibid. pp. 105-106

76 McCormick, pp. 24-25

77 To date, Cleveland is the only President to serve non-consecutive terms: (1885-1889, 1893-1897)

78 Grover Cleveland’s inaugural address of March 4th 1885; Accessed online via: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=25824#ixzz1u0qAmSrg

79 Richard E. Welch Jr., The Presidencies of Grover Cleveland pg. 158

80 Welch Jr., pg. 158.

81 Ibid, pg. 160.

82John G. Tower. Congress versus the president: The formulation and implementation of American foreign policyForeign Affairs (pre-1986); Winter 1981/1982; 60, 002; ProQuest pg. 229.

83 Figures obtained from website of the Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives via; http://artandhistory.house.gov/house_history/

84 Welch Jr., pg. 174.

85 Ibid, pg. 196.

86 Ibid, 196.

87 Ibid, 198.

88 Ibid, 160.

89 First Inaugural Address of William McKinley, March 4th 1897; Accessed online via: http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres40.html

90 See for example H. Wayne Morgan’s America's Road to Empire: The War with Spain and Overseas Expansion (1965); Julius Pratt’s Expansionists of 1898: The Acquisition of Hawaii and the Spanish Islands (1936)

91 Figures obtained from website of the Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives via; http://artandhistory.house.gov/house_history/

92 See H. Wayne Morgan's William McKinley and His America (1963), Gerald F. Linderman's The Mirror of War (1974), Lewis Gould's The Presidency of William McKinley (1980), John L. Offner's The Unwanted War (1992).

93 Nick Kapur; William McKinley's Values and the Origins of the Spanish-American War: A Reinterpretation. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41: 18–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-5705.2010.03829.x

94 Ibid

95 Ibid

96 See Lewis L. Gould, “The First Modern President,” in The Presidency of William McKinley (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1980), 231-253. John M. Dobson, Reticent Expansionism: The Foreign Policy of William McKinley (Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 1988)

97 William N. Tilchin. For the Present and the Future: The Well-Conceived, Successful, and Farsighted Statecraft of President Theodore Roosevelt Diplomacy & Statecraft, Vol. 19: pp. 658–670, 2008

98 Hay served as Roosevelt’s Secretary of State from 1901-1905, Root from1905-1909.

99 Serge Ricard, “Foreign Policy Making in the White House: Rooseveltian Style Personal Diplomacy”, in Artists of Power; edited by William N. Tilchin and Charles E. Neu (Connecticut, 2006), 3-31.

100 Theodore Roosevelt, The Autobiography of Theodore Roosevelt, pg. 198

101 Ibid, pg. 197

102 Lewis Gould, The Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, pg. 11.

103 Arthur M. Schlesinger, The Imperial Presidency, pg. 86

104 Roosevelt, An Autobiography, pg. 510

105 Roosevelt, pg. 198

106 (T.R. to H.C. Lodge, January 28, 1909, Roosevelt, Letters, Elting Morison, ed. (Cambridge, 1951-1956), Vol. 1, 1497-1498

107Mr. Taft in the White House”, New York Times (1857-1922); Nov 5, 1908; ProQuest Historical Newspapers, pg. 8

108William H. Taft”, New York Times (1857-1922); Mar 4, 1913: pg. 12

109 Ibid.

110 Michael J. Korzi; Our Chief Magistrate and His Powers: A Reconsideration of William Howard Taft's "Whig" Theory of Presidential Leadership; Presidential Studies Quarterly , Vol. 33, No. 2 (Jun., 2003), pp. 305-324

111 Ibid

112 Donald F. Anderson, The Legacy of William Howard Taft; Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 1, (Winter, 1982), pp. 26-33

113 Korzi, pg. 322

114 Terri Bimes and Stephen Skowronek. Woodrow Wilson’s critique of popular leadership: Reassessing the modern-traditional divide in presidential history. In Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective, edited by Richard J. Ellis. (University of Massachusetts Press, 1998)

115 Charles E. Neu, “Woodrow Wilson and His Foreign Policy Advisors”, in Artists of Power (Connecticut, 2006), 77-94

116 Ibid, pg.81

117 Ibid.

118 Ibid, pg. 91

119Taft’s 1912 State of the Union Address; Accessed online via http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29553#axzz1vdTjylxB

120 Iriye, From Nationalism to Internationalism, pg. 213

121 Ibid, pg. 214

122 Inaugural address of William H. Taft; retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres43.html

123 Ibid.

124 Scott Nearing & Joseph Freeman. Dollar Diplomacy; a study in American imperialism (London, 1926) pg. 43

125 Paterson, American Foreign Policy, pg. 242

126 Nearing & Freeman, pg. 44

127 Ibid.

128 Ibid.

129 Paterson, pg. 242

130 Nearing & Freeman, pg. 265

131 LaFeber, pg. 246

132 Iriye, pg. 221

133 Ibid.

134 A. Bauer Paiz, ‘Imperialism in Guatemala’, Science and Society, Vol. XXXIV, No. 2 (1970), pp. 146-147 in V.G. Kiernan’s America: The New Imperialism pg. 130

135 Juan Leets, United States and Latin America; dollar diplomacy (1912) pg.13; accessed via http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?view=image;size=100;id=loc.ark%3A%2F13960%2Ft4bp0w737;page=root;seq=9

136 Ibid, pg.4

137 Ibid, pp. 4-5

138 Korzi, pg. 323

139 Iriye, pg. 216

140 Michael Hunt, ‘Frontier Defence and the Open Door’, in Akira Iriye, Nationalism and Internationalism: US Foreign Policy to 1914, pg. 225

141 William N.Tilchin. For the Present and the Future: The Well-Conceived, Successful, and Farsighted Statecraft of President Theodore Roosevelt Diplomacy & Statecraft, Vol. 19, 2008, pg. 659

142 Paul T. McCartney, Power and Progress; American National Identity, the War of 1898 and the Rise of American Imperialism, pg. 177-178

143 Zimmerman, pg. 117

144 Ibid, pg. 92

145 Ibid

146 Theodore Roosevelt’s First Annual Message to Congress, December 3rd 1901; Accessed via http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3773

147 Ibid

148 Ibid

149 James R. Reckner, Teddy Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet, pg. 1

150 Cited in P. Kennedy, Strategy and Diplomacy 1860-1935: Eight Essays (London, 1983), pp. 157-158

151 Holger H. Herwig, ‘Luxury’ Fleet, The Imperial German Navy, 1888-1918, pg.42

152 Carlyon Bellairs, “British and American Naval Expenditure”, The North American Review, Vol. 179, No. 577 (Dec., 1904), pg.889 (accessed via http://www.unz.org/Pub/NorthAmericanRev-1904dec-00887)

153 Ibid.

154 Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York, 1987) pg. 214

155 Ibid, pg. 894

156 Ibid, pg. 203

157 Harold Sprout & Margaret Sprout, The Rise of American Naval Power, 1776-1918, pp.259-261

158 Theodore Roosevelt’s Fifth Annual Message to Congress, Dec 5th 1905; accessed online via http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29546

159 Recker, pg. 1

160 TR’s Seventh Annual Message (December 3, 1907); accessed online via http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3779,

161 Ibid; http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3779

162 (Morison) Roosevelt to Trevelyan, 1 October 1911, Letters, Vol. 7: 393

163 Frederick Marks, Velvet on Iron, (London, 1979) pp. 55-56.

164 Ibid.

165 Marks, Velvet on Iron, pp. 57-58

166 Reckner, pg. 1

167 Ibid.

168 Sprout, pg. 284

169 Carl Cavanagh Hodge (2008): A Whiff of Cordite: Theodore Roosevelt and the Transoceanic Naval Arms Race, 1897–1909, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 19:4, pg. 728

170 McCartney, pg. 176

171 Ibid, pg. 250

172 Bellairs, pg. 892

173 Tinchin (2008), pg. 661

174 James Monroe’s Seventh Annual Message, December 2, 1823; Accessed online via http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29465#axzz1v7vKSm17

175 Ibid.

176 Mark T.Gilderhus, The Monroe Doctrine: Meanings and Implications. Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, Presidential Doctrines (Mar., 2006) pg. 8

177 Ibid.

178 Serge Ricard, The Roosevelt Corollary. Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, Presidential Doctrines (Mar., 2006), pp. 17-18

179 Tilchin (2008) pg. 660

180 TR’s First Annual Message (December 3, 1901) Accessed online via; http://millercenter.org/president/speeches/detail/3773

181 Robert Holden and Eric Zolov, Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History, pp. 34-35

182 Thomas G Paterson, J. Garry Clifford, Kenneth J. Hagan. American Foreign Policy; A History/to 1914, pg. 229

183 Ibid, pp. 83-84

184 LaFeber, The American Age, pg. 227

185 Ibid.

186 Iriye, From Nationalism to Internationalism, pp. 176-177

187 Ibid.

188 Public Opinion 35 (19 November 1903): 645

189 Marks, Velvet on Iron, pp.96-97

190 ‘Congress may look into Roosevelt’s Panama Action’, pg. SM6, New York Times, April 23, 1911

191 TR to Albert Shaw. Morison, Letters, Vol. 3; pg.628

192 New York Times, Oct 6th, 1911, pg.12: Roosevelt Defends his Panama Action; ProQuest Historical Newspapers

193 Marks, pg. 102

194 Paterson, pg. 222

195 Marks, pg. 102

196 Letters, Vol. 3; Nov 6th, 1903; TR to Albert Shaw,

197 LaFeber, pg. 230

198 Iriye, pg. 177

199 Stephen G. Rabe. Theodore Roosevelt, the Panama Canal, and the Roosevelt Corollary: Sphere of Influence Diplomacy pp. 274-292 of A Companion to Theodore Roosevelt; edited by Serge Ricard. (Chichester, 2011)

200 Extracts of the Teller Amendment; Accessed via http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/teller.htm

201 Paul T. McCartney, pg. 142

202 Paterson, pg. 201

203 McCartney, pg. 142

204 William McKinley’s Second Annual Message, December 5, 1898; Accessed online via http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29539#axzz1vKnQo1RD

205 Ibid.

206 Iriye, pg. 162

207 Ibid, pg. 163

208 Text of the Platt Amendment accessed via: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1901platt.asp [Quoting "The Platt Amendment," in Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949, vol. 8, ed. C.I. Bevans (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 197 1), pp. 1116-17.]

209 Ibid.

210 Marks, pg. 94

211 Louis A.. Pérez Jr. Cuba Between Empires, 1878-1902; (Pittsburgh, 1982) pg. 362

212 Ibid. pp.364-365

213 LaFeber, The American Age, pp. 197-198

214 Ibid, 198.

215 Confidential memorandum for the Secretary of the Navy from Captain Sigsbee, Nov. 16, 1901; in Alfred Vagts, Hopes and Fears of an American-German War, 1870-1915 Political Science Quarterly , Vol. 54, No. 4 (Dec., 1939), pg. 526

216 Iriye, pg. 148

217 James C. Thomson Jr., Peter W. Stanley & John Curtis Perry. Sentimental Imperialists, (New York, 1981) pg. 112

218 Charles S. Olcott, The Life of William McKinley (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1916) 2:109-111; in Paul T. McCartney, Power and Progress, pg. 200

219 Zimmermann. First Great Triumph, pg. 308

220 Ibid.

221 Paterson, pg. 208

222 Ibid.

223 Ibid.

224 Kiernan, pg. 119

225 Taft to Roosevelt 28/10/1902 (Microfilm retrieved from Theodore Roosevelt Papers, Series 1: October 4th-November 7th 1902, Reel 30; Roosevelt Study Center Middelburg)

226 ‘Mr. Roosevelt Urges Relief for Filipinos’, New York Times (1857-1922);Feb 28th, 1903 ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2008) pg.1

227 Ibid.

228 General L. Wood to Theodore Roosevelt, 26/6/1906 (Microfilm retrieved from Theodore Roosevelt Papers, Series 1 May 19th-July 8th, 1906 ,Reel 65; Roosevelt Study Center Middelburg)

229 ‘Will Open Philippines to the Big Investors’, New York Times (1857-1922); Oct 22, 1905; ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2008) pg. 14

230 V.G. Kiernan, America: The New Imperialism pg. 119

231 ‘PHILIPPINE TARIFF BILL IS REPORTED’, New York Times (14/12/1901) PG.8

232 Theodore Roosevelt, First Annual Message to Congress, December 3, 1901; Accessed online via http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=29542#axzz1vWT4kd6T

233 William N. Tilchin, Anglo American Partnership: The Foundation of Theodore Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy (Ricard: A Companion to Theodore Roosevelt) pg. 316

234 David Healy, Drive to Hegemony, pp. 100-101

235 Morison, Letters. Roosevelt to Sternberg, July 12, 1901; Vol. 3, Pg. 116

236 Healy, pp. 102-103

237 Tilchin, pg. 317

238 Ibid.

239 Iriye, pp. 80-81

240 Ibid

241 Wolf von Schierbrand, Germany. The Welding of a World Power (New York, 1902) pg. 352 [downloaded online via http://archive.org/details/germanyweldingof00schi]

242 Perkins, A History of the Monroe Doctrine, pg. 208

243 Kennedy, pg. 203

244 Marks, Velvet on Iron, pp. 5-6

245 Perkins, pp.208-209

246 Ibid, pg. 210

247 Ibid, pp.210-211

248 Quoted in Austin Harrison’s The Pan-Germanic Doctrine (1904) pp.232-233; Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/stream/pangermanicdoct00harrgoog#page/n253/mode/2up

249 Ibid.

250 Zimmermann, First Great Triumph, pg. 301

251 Ibid.

252 Morison, Letters, Vol. 1:pp. 768-769

253 Barber to the Navy Department, no. 130, Oct. 1, 1898, Natl. Archives in Alfred Vagts, Hopes and Fears of an American-German War, 1870-1915 Political Science Quarterly , Vol. 54, No. 4 (Dec., 1939) pg. 527

254 David Healy, Drive to Hegemony, pg. 72

255 H. Herwig and D.F. Trask, “Naval Operations Plans between Germany and the USA, 1898-1913. A Study of Strategic Planning in the Age of Imperialism” pp. 39-74 in The War Plans of the Great Powers 1880-1914, ed. Paul Kennedy (1979)

256 Ibid.

257 Dutch Consulate in Curacao to the Department of State, 29/11/1902; Dispatches from United States Consuls in Curacao, Netherlands and West Indies T197 Roll 12, No.49 (Retrieved from Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg)

258 Ibid.

259 Telegram from Wilhelm II to Theodore Roosevelt, 14/05/1902; Theodore Roosevelt Papers Series 1: April 9th-May 15th 1902, Reel 26 (Retrieved from Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg)

260 Telegram from Wilhelm II to TR, 29/06/1902; Theodore Roosevelt Papers Series 1: June 27th- August 11th 1902, Reel 28 (Retrieved from Roosevelt Study Center, Middelburg)

261 Kennedy, Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, pp. 202-203

262 Ibid.

263 LaFeber, The American Age, pg. 237

264 Kennedy, pg. 209

265 For more see Walter LaFeber, The Clash: U.S.-Japanese Relations Throughout History (New York, 1997)

266 America Ahead in Fighting Strength. New York Times, 7/7/1907, pg. SM7

267 Ibid.

268 Ibid.

269 Thomas D. Schoonover, The United States in Central America 1860-1911; pg. 136

270 Ibid, pg. 141

271 Healy, pg. 76

272 Akira Iriye, pg. 212

273 Annick Cizel (2008): Nation-Building in the Philippines: Rooseveltian Statecraft for Imperial Modernization in an Emergent Transatlantic World Order, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 19:4, 690-711

274Julian Go, Patterns of empire : the British and American empires, 1688 to the present (New York 2011) pg. 32

275 George Steinmetz. Return to Empire: The New U.S. Imperialism in Comparative Historical Perspective; Sociological Theory, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Dec., 2005), pp. 339-367

276Theodore Roosevelt, An Autobiography (New York, 1913), p. 544.

277 Cizel, pp. 693-694

278 Theodore Roosevelt Papers, The Library of Congress President’s Papers Microfilm Series (Washington, DC, 1969), reel 426, in Annick Cizel (2008) Nation-Building in the Philippines: Rooseveltian Statecraft for Imperial Modernization in an Emergent Transatlantic World Order, Diplomacy & Statecraft, 19:4, pg. 694

279 Cizel, pg. 694

280 See Gad Heuman “The British West Indies”, pp. 470-493 of The Oxford History of the British Empire: Vol. 3 The Nineteenth Century [ed. Andrew Porter] (Oxford, 1999)

281 See Robin J. Moore “Imperial India 1858-1914”, pp. 422-446 of The Oxford History of the British Empire: Vol. 3 The Nineteenth Century [ed. Andrew Porter] (Oxford, 1999)

282 Ibid, pg. 441

283 Ibid.

284 Ibid. pg. 704

285 Theodore Roosevelt, Fourth Annual Message, December 6, 1904. Accessed via http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=29545

286 Roosevelt, An Autobiography, p. 544.

287 Go, pg. 55

288 Zimmermann, pg. 301

289 TR to Theodore Elijah Burton, February 23, 1904, Morison, The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt, vol. IV: The Square Deal 1903–1905 (Cambridge, MA, 1951), p. 737.

290 http://hnn.us/articles/27021.html

291 Tilchin (2008) pg. 667

292 Go. pp. 9-10.

293 Ibid. pp. 10-11

294 See P.J. Cain & A.G. Hopkins British Imperialism: Innovation and Expansion, 1688-1914 (London, 1993)


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