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Re: Wars in Asia (Iraq, Afghanistan, Lebanon)
Iraq A recent substantial expansion of the LCC for the Iraq War span prompted us to review the provisions for the Iraq War in the DDC. Currently, the Iraq War is classed with the history of Iraq in 956.70443.
The LCC revision expands the span chiefly regarding individual operations (by including several sites of engagement), involvement of countries, and certain special topics.
The current provision in the DDC already deals with these issues in several ways. Apart from some exceptions (World War I and II, U.S. Civil War, etc.), the DDC usually does not provide for individual operations. Involvement of specific countries and other special topics are covered by the add table under 940–990 (the subdivisions of which can be used for 956.70443, as indicated by a footnote), which allows for fuller treatment. Possible expansions would have to take place in this add table und would affect many classes across the DDC.
However, there are two issues that we would like to address. LCC (and LCSH) provides for the Iraq War as “Iraq War, 2003– ,” i.e., with an open-ended date span, indicating that the war is still ongoing and was not limited to the engagement in 2003, which was followed by a period of reconstruction. The current provision in the DDC reflects a different view, which is backed by academic sources like the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. This view holds that the interstate conflict called the “Iraq War” only lasted from March to April 2003, soon followed by a period of “stabilization and reconstruction” and a series of separate intrastate conflicts.1 The more popular view holds that the invasion of Iraq in 2003 only marks the first phase of one – still ongoing – larger conflict (see, e.g., the Wikipedia entry “Iraq War”).
We recommend that the more widespread view should be reflected in the DDC by changing the topic in the class-here note to “Iraq War, 2003 to present.” This change clarifies that the topic also applies to combat operation and other topics after 2003.
956.704 43 ‡1991–
Class here Iraq War, 2003 to present; period of occupation and reconstruction, 2003 to present
Afghanistan The war in Afghanistan, which began in 2001 as Operation Enduring Freedom, currently is classed in 958.1047 [History of Afghanistan,] 2001– . The war is indexed as “Afghan War,” but it is not explicitly provided for in an including or class-here note. Michael Cantlon suggested the following change to the current situation:
There is no provision for war subdivisions under 958.1047, the current period of Afghanistan history. A note to add from the “War Table” at 940–990 would probably be enough to cover the literature.
We agree with this assessment and recommend putting the topic in a class-here note and allowing addition from the table under 940–990.
958.104 7 ‡2001–
Class here Afghan War, 2001 to present ‡Add as instructed under 940–990
Lebanon The Lebanese Civil War, which started in 1975, ended in 1990 on the basis of the Ta'if Agreement (ratified 1989). It is recommended to close off 956.92044 and provide a new class for the history of Lebanon from 1990 to present.
In 2006, a conflict broke out between Lebanon and Israel that lasted only 34 days but had severe consequences to Lebanese infrastructure and displaced hundreds of thousands of people, both Israeli and Lebanese. Since the conflict has considerable literary warrant in WorldCat (a search for su:"Lebanon War, 2006" shows 443 results, with 44 from 2009 or 2010 alone), we recommend providing for it as a subdivision of the new number and allowing addition from the table under 940–990.
956.920 44 ‡Period of civil war and religious strife, 1975–1990 Class here Lebanese Civil War, 1975–1990 Class Israel-Lebanon-Syria Conflict, 1982–1985, in 956.052
956.920 451990– 956.920 4511990–2006 956.920 452‡Lebanon War, 2006 956.920 4532006–
‡Add as instructed under 940–990
1 “While the interstate conflict had been terminated in 2003, coalition troops remained in Iraq even after a sovereign Iraqi government had been established in 2004. They subsequently supported the newly created government militarily in the intrastate conflict that eventually erupted in 2004.” (Uppsala Conflict Data Program [Date of retrieval: 2010/04/09] UCDP Database: www.ucdp.uu.se/database, Uppsala University)