Environmental Health Indicators for New Zealand 2008



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Contents


Foreword iii

Authors and Acknowledgement iv

Contents v

Executive Summary xi

Key results xii

Conclusion xiv

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Overview 1

Environmental health 2

Environmental health indicators 3

Purpose and scope of this report 4

Chapter 2: Data and Methods 6

Framework for environmental health indicators 6

Selected indicators 8

Data sources 8

Data presentation 9

Key pointers for interpreting the results 10

Chapter 3: Driving Forces 12

Introduction 12

Overview of indicators 12

Driving force indicator: population growth 12

Driving force indicator: population density 16

Driving force indicator: Number of passenger arrivals into New Zealand 18

Actions relating to driving force indicators 20

Discussion 21

Chapter 4: Pressures 22

Introduction 22

Overview of indicators 22

Pressure indicator: energy consumption 22

Pressure indicator: number of vehicles 26

Pressure indicator: average age of vehicle fleet 29

Pressure indicator: use of wood and coal for domestic heating 32

Pressure indicator: number of livestock 37

Pressure indicator: amount of imported cargo 43

Actions relating to pressure indicators 47

Discussion 49

Chapter 5: Air Quality and Health 51

Introduction 51

Overview of indicators 53

State indicator: exceedance of the national environmental standards for air quality 54

Exposure indicator: exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the home 64

Effects indicator: respiratory disease 66

Actions relating to air quality and health indicators 68

Discussion 71

Chapter 6: Water Quality and Health 75

Introduction 75

Overview of indicators 76

State indicator: exceedances of guidelines at recreational marine and freshwater beaches 77

Exposure indicator: estimated number of people with access to safe drinking-water supplies 85

Effects indicator: notifications of water-borne disease 89

Actions relating to water quality and health indicators 96

Discussion 98

Chapter 7: Biosecurity 101

Introduction 101

Overview of indicators 103

State indicator: distribution of potential disease-vector species in New Zealand 104

Exposure indicator: overseas outbreaks of notifiable diseases 107

Effects indicator: vector-borne disease notifications 111

Actions relating to biosecurity and health indicators 115

Discussion 116

Chapter 8: Summary of Key Findings 119

Introduction 119

Air quality and health 119

Summary of key findings for air quality and health 120

Water quality and health 121

Summary of key findings for water quality and health 122

Biosecurity and health 123

Summary of key findings for biosecurity and health 123

Conclusion 125

Appendix A: Environmental Legislation and Agencies in New Zealand 126

Appendix B: The Development of Environmental Health Indicators 128

Appendix C: Reference Maps 130

Appendix D: Summary of Population Characteristics 132

Appendix E: Summary of Data Sources 137

Ministry of Health 137

ESR 137


Glossary 139

References 140


List of Tables



Table 1: Percentage of dwellings using certain fuel types for home heating, 1996, 2001 and 2006 32

Table 2: National environmental standards for air quality in New Zealand 52

Table 3: Airsheds exceeding national environmental standards for air quality for PM10 in 2007, and usually resident population in airsheds in 2006 59

Table 4: Exposure to second-hand smoke for children and non-smoking adults in their home, 2006/07, by District Health Board area, unadjusted prevalence 65

Table 5: Annual respiratory hospitalisations and mortality among total New Zealand population, 2000–2007, age-standardised rate per 100,000 67

Table 6: Respiratory hospitalisations, by age group, 2007, unadjusted rate per 100,000 68

Table 7: Percentage of the New Zealand population served by compliant drinking-water supplies, 2006/07 86

Table 8: Notifications of campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in New Zealand, 2001–2007, counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 91

Table 9: Notifications of water-borne disease with untreated drinking-water as a risk factor in New Zealand, 2001–2007, counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 92

Table 10: Notifications of water-borne disease with recreational water as a risk factor, in New Zealand, 2001–2007, counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 94

Table 11: Key agencies and groups involved in biosecurity efforts in New Zealand 102

Table 12: Introduced mosquitoes in New Zealand 105

Table 13: Sites of Southern Saltmarsh mosquitoes found in New Zealand and date of eradication 105

Table 14: Exotic mosquitoes intercepted at the New Zealand border, July 2001–December 2008 106

Table 15: International notifiable disease outbreaks, by country, 2007/08 108

Table 16: Number of confirmed human cases of, and deaths from, avian influenza (A/H5N1) reported to the WHO, by country and year, 2003–2008 109

Table 17: Number of notifications of vector-borne diseases in New Zealand, 1997–2007 112

Table 18: Number of notifications of vector-borne diseases in New Zealand, by exposure risk factors, 1997–2007 114

Table A1: Estimated 2006 Census population characteristics, by District Health Board 132

Table A2: 2006 Census population characteristics, by territorial authority 132

Table A3: 2006 Census population characteristics, by airshed 134


List of Figures



Figure 1: Determinants of health 2

Figure 2: The DPSEEA framework for environmental health indicators 6

Figure 3: Outline of environmental health indicators included in this report 8

Figure 4: Estimated population in New Zealand, 1941–2006 13

Figure 5: Map of population change in New Zealand, by territorial authority, 1996–2006, percent change 15

Figure 6: Map of population density, by territorial authority, 2006, persons per square kilometre 17

Figure 7: Annual number of passenger arrivals to New Zealand, by type of visitor, 1961–2008 19

Figure 8: Number of short-term overseas passenger arrivals, by country of last permanent residence, 2008 20

Figure 9: New Zealand total energy consumed, by fuel type, 1974–2007 24

Figure 10: New Zealand total energy consumed, by sector, 1974–2007 25

Figure 11: Number of vehicles in New Zealand, by vehicle type, 2000–2007 27

Figure 12: Number of light vehicles per 1000 population, compared to Australia and other countries located in Western Europe and North America, 2002/03 28

Figure 13: Average age of vehicle fleet in New Zealand, by vehicle type, 2000–2007 30

Figure 14: Average age of vehicle fleet (years), international comparisons, 2002–2007 31

Figure 15: Percentage of dwellings using wood as a source for heating, by territorial authority, 2006 34

Figure 16: Percentage of dwellings using coal as a source for heating, by territorial authority, 2006 36

Figure 17: Number of livestock in New Zealand, by type, 1981–2007 38

Figure 18: Number of livestock in New Zealand, by region, 2007 39

Figure 19: Map of number of livestock, by territorial authority, 2007 40

Figure 20: Number of dairy cattle in New Zealand, North and South Island, 1981–2007 41

Figure 21: Map of number of dairy cattle, by territorial authority, 2007 42

Figure 22: Gross weight of imported cargo into New Zealand, by year, 1997–2007 (millions of tonnes) 44

Figure 23: Gross weight of imported cargo into New Zealand, by seaport and airport, 2006/07 (tonnes) 44

Figure 24: Number of sea containers imported into New Zealand, by type, 2001/02 to 2006/07 45

Figure 25: Number of sea containers imported into New Zealand, by port, 2006/07 46

Figure 26: Number of sea containers imported into New Zealand in 2006/07, by last country or region of loading 47

Figure 27: The DPSEEA framework for air quality environmental health indicators 53

Figure 28: Number of exceedances of the national environment standard for PM10, 2007 56

Figure 29: Maximum PM10 levels (24-hour concentration) in air sheds in 2007 57

Figure 30: Annual average PM10 levels in airsheds in 2007 58

Figure 31: Compliance with the PM10 standard, 2005–2007 60

Figure 32: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) 1-hour maximum levels in four monitored airsheds, 1988–2005 61

Figure 33: Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 1-hour maximum levels in two monitored airsheds, 1988–2005 62

Figure 34: Carbon monoxide (CO) 8-hour maximum levels in five monitored airsheds, 1988–2005 63

Figure 35: Respiratory hospitalisations among 0–4-year-olds, by District Health Board, 2007, unadjusted rate per 100,000 68

Figure 36: The DPSEEA framework for water quality environmental health indicators 76

Figure 37: Number of recreational marine beaches exceeding guidelines for enterococci, 2003/04 to 2006/07 79

Figure 38: Proportion of recreational marine beaches exceeding guidelines for enterococci, 2003/04 to 2006/07 79

Figure 39: Number of recreational freshwater beaches, by E. coli exceedance levels, 2003/04 to 2006/07 80

Figure 40: Proportion of freshwater beaches compliant with E. coli guidelines, 2003/04 to 2006/07 81

Figure 41: Exceedance rates from samples taken at monitored recreational beaches, North Island, 2006/07 83

Figure 42: Exceedance rates from samples taken at monitored recreational beaches, South Island, 2006/07 84

Figure 43: Percentage of population with access to bacteriologically compliant drinking-water, by territorial authority, 2006/07 87

Figure 44: Percentage of territorial authority populations with access to protozoal-compliant drinking-water, 2006/07 88

Figure 45: Crude notification rate for cases of water-borne disease (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis) recording untreated drinking-water as a risk factor, by territorial authority, 2005–2007, rate per 100,000 people per year 93

Figure 46: Crude notification rate for cases of water-borne disease (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis) recording recreational water use as a risk factor, by territorial authority, 2005–2007, rate per 100,000 people per year 95

Figure 47: Biosecurity risk continuum (potential for disease and disease-causing organisms to enter New Zealand) 103

Figure 48: The DPSEEA framework for biosecurity environmental health indicators 103

Figure 49: Selected emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the world, 1996–2004 108

Figure 50: Number of notifications of malaria in New Zealand, by exposure risk factor and year, 1997–2007 113

Figure 51: Number of notifications of dengue fever cases in New Zealand, by exposure risk factor and year, 1997–2007 113

Figure A1: Map of District Health Boards in New Zealand 130

Figure A2: Map of territorial authorities in New Zealand 131





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