Environmental Health Indicators for New Zealand 2008

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Data presentation

Where possible, data in this report are presented nationally for a number of years, to show the trends over time, and for geographic regions such as territorial authorities.

Data sources

Limitations for individual data sets are included with the indicator. All data quoted in this publication are subject to the limitations placed on them by the data provider.


For many of the health effects, rates have been calculated as the proportion of the population of interest associated with the indicator. Rates have generally been expressed as per 100 (percent), or per 100,000 population.
Many of the health effects have been presented as age-standardised rates. Age is an important determinant of health, and standardising for age enables a valid comparison to be made between population groups with different age structures. Age-standardised rates have been directly age standardised to the WHO world standard population (Ahmad et al 2000), and have generally been expressed per 100,000 population.

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