Enlightenment Ideas

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Midterm Review Guide

A. Causes of the French Revolution

  • Enlightenment Ideas

  • The wars and debt of Louis XIV and poor rule of Louis XVI

  • inequalities in the tax structure

  • Third Estate paid ALL the taxes, First and Second paid no taxes

  • inspired other peoples seeking democracy and independence (Latin American Rev’s)

B. Robespierre and the Reign of Terror

  • After a few years of an unstable gov’t the radical Jacobin Club comes to power

  • Robespierre started Reign of Terror = purged and violently killed his opponents (anti-revolutionaries)

  • Reign of Terror ended Robespierre’s death

C. Napoleon

  • Nationalist leader that provided stability for the nation

  • Expanded the French Empire (1799-1815) with the Napoleonic Wars

  • Finally defeated in Russia because of the severe winters and large size

  • The loss at the Battle of Waterloo ended the Age of Napoleon

  • Inspired nationalistic feelings in countries he conquered

  • Followed by the Congress of Vienna

The French Revolution

The Enlightenment

  1. Enlightenment Ideas:
    • All individuals have NATURAL RIGHTS.
    • The use of REASON would lead to human progress.

  1. Philosophers of the Enlightenment period believed that society could best be improved by applying REASON and the LAWS OF NATURE.

  1. Philosophes and Their Ideas:
    • John Locke’s (wrote Two Treatises of Government)

  • governments should be based on the consent of the people

  • the chief role of government was to protect natural rights

• Rousseau (wrote The Social Contract)

• Montesquieu (wrote The Spirit of the Laws)

  1. The writings of Jean Jacques ROUSSEAU, Baron de MONTESQUIEU, and John LOCKE were similar in that each supported the principles of a DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.

  1. The ideas of Rousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquieu influenced movements for POLITICAL REFORM.

  1. The writings of the 18th-century French philosophers Diderot, Rousseau, and Voltaire influenced the policies of the ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS.

Catherine the Great = Enlightened Despot

  1. The SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION had a great influence on the Enlightenment ideas of NATURAL LAW and REASON.

  1. The SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION and the Enlightenment were similar is that they encouraged the SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS.

  1. The Enlightenment, American Revolution, and French Revolution were all major influences over Latin American Revolutions

The Enlightenment and the AMERICAN REVOLUTION were both major influences on19th century uprisings in LATIN AMERICA.

A. NATIONALISM is a feeling of pride in and devotion to oneʼs country.

  • Develops among people who may share a common language, history, set of traditions, or goal.

  • Nationalism also causes people to join together to choose their own form of government, without outside interference

    • Self determination

    • Sovereignty

    • Autonomy

    • Independence

B. Nationalism can be a unifying force

  • Unification of Germany

  • Unification of Italy

C. Nationalism can be a force that tears apart empires

  • Austria-Hungary

  • Ottoman Empire

D. The French Revolution and Napoleon Conquests inspired nationalistic feelings among the French people

E. Nationalistic feelings arose in areas of Europe that were conquered by Napoleon

  • Groups of conquered people often unite to drive out a foreign conqueror

F Nationalistic Leaders

  • Otto Von Bismarck- used “Blood and Iron” policy to achieve German unification

  • G. Garibaldi, C. Cavour, G. Mazzini- leaders of Italian unification

  • Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, Toussaint l’ Overture- Latin America

  • Sun Yixan- nationalist leader in China

G. Events influenced by Nationalism

  • Unification of Germany

  • Unification of Italy

  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and WWI (MAIN)

  • Breakup of Austria-Hungary

  • Breakup of Ottoman Empire


  1. 1815: treaty signed after the defeat of Napoleon

  2. Redrew the map of Europe

  3. Tried to establish a balance of power

  4. Contributed to the rise of nationalistic feelings in countries who were placed under foreign control

Congress of Vienna

A. Inspired by Enlightenment ideas, American Revolution, and French Revolutions

B. Latin American Revolutions (1799-1825)

  • Toussaint L’Ouverture: he led a Haitian slave revolt against French rule in 1799

    • Haiti the first independent Latin country

  • Simon Bolivar from Venezuela led the independence movements with Jose de San Martin to liberate other countries in South America

  • All men are nationalist leaders and favored democracy

Revolutions in Latin America

A. Agrarian Revolution

  • This event sparked the Industrial Revolution

  • New technologies improved farming (ex. seed drill and Enclosure movement) and textile production (ex. spinning Jenny) easier & faster

  • Created a food surplus, increased population and life expectancy

  • Increased the number of available workers (Labor Pool)

B. The Start of the Industrial Revolution

  • started in England because it had the resources (coal & iron), the money to invest in new businesses, and the labor force (farmers forced off their lands) to start the revolution

  • The desire more sources of land, labor, and capital created new overseas empires and spread the Commercial Revolution

C. Factory System

  • Factory System: people worked in the factory instead of from home

  • Factories produced goods cheaper and faster

D. Urbanization

  • Urbanization: mov’t of people to the cities

  • Railroads: moved goods at a much faster rate

  • The construction of railroads helped create cities which increased urbanization and factories

E. Industrial Problems and Reform

  • Pre-1800s: Factories caused pollution, were unsafe, paid low wages, and used child labor

  • Urbanization caused pollution &spread disease

  • 1800s Reform: gave workers fair wages, limited child labor & allowed labor unions

F. Adam Smith and Capitalism

  • Laissez-Faire = gov’t should not interfere with business

  • Supported a Free Market economy- private individuals and market forces determine what to produce, how to produce it, for whom to produce

  • Production should be governed by supply and demand not government control

  • Capitalism: people could own business for profit

  • His beliefs fueled the Industrial Revolution

G. Socialists

  • believed capitalism created large gap between rich and poor

  • supported a command economy where the government controlled major industries and the economy

F. Karl Marx and the Communist Manifesto

  • Marx wrote The Communist Manifesto which supported a radical form of socialism known as communism

  • Opposed capitalism and Adam Smith

  • Said working class (proletariat) would overthrow the capitalist system

  • Wanted a classless society

  • Believed history a class struggle and revolutionary change was needed

  • Industrialization benefits the wealthy and exploits the poor.

  • In a communist society, all the evils of industrial society would disappear.

Industrial Revolution

  1. IMPERIALISM -Establishing control over foreign lands and foreign people; the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.

  2. The needs of industrial revolution during the 1800’s in Europe and the United States was a major reason for imperialism

    • Natural resources

    • New Markets

    • Cheap labor

  3. Social Darwinism - According to the theory of Social Darwinism, it was natural for stronger nations to dominate weaker ones

  4. Rudyard Kipling’s poem “White Man’s Burden” expressed the idea that Europeans had a duty to introduce the benefits of their civilization to non-European peoples.

  5. Imperialism in Africa

    • Africa’s geographic (physical) barriers (waterfalls, rapids, highlands, steep cliffs, deserts) delayed European colonization of central Africa.

    • King Leopold of Belgium established a trade colony in the Congo which sparked the interest of other European nations in Africa

    • European leaders held the Berlin Conference in order to determine how Europeans would divide up of Africa

      • The borders that were established for many African nations during the late 1800ʼs were based primarily on territorial claims of colonial rulers.

    • Cecil Rhodes was a strong supporter of British imperialism in Africa

    • Shaka Zulu and the Zulu’s attempted to resist imperialism in Southern Africa

      • were defeated because of the British armies superior military technology

F. Imperialism in India

  • The BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY grew wealthy and powerful conducting TRADE with India

  • The slogan “The Sun never sets on the British Empire” was developed during the Age of Imperialism

  • Sepoy Mutiny was rebellion of Indian soldiers employed by the British East Company

  • British demanded the Sepoys follow rules that went against their Hindu and Muslim religious beliefs

  • British crushed the rebellion

  • British established direct rule over India after the Sepoy Mutiny

G. Imperialism in China

  • European colonialism in Asia was successful (in the late 1800s) because Europe was able to dominate military and commercial relations with Asia.

  • A SPHERE OF INFLUENCE is an area in which an outside power claims exclusive trading privileges.

  • During the 19th century, European nations established spheres of influence in China mainly to gain commercial (trade) advantages.

  • The Opium War of the mid-19th century (1839) marked the beginning of the domination of China by foreign powers.


    • China was divided into spheres of influence

    • Chinese ports were opened for TRADE with European powers.

    • British gained rights of extraterritoriality for its citizens in China

  • The Taiping Rebellion was a rebellion of Chinese peasants against the Qing Dynasty rulers in China which weakened China

  • The Boxer Rebellion was an unsuccessful attempt to attempt to drive foreign influence out of China

  • Sun Yixan was a nationalist leader who led movement to replace the Qing dynasty and restore Chinese rule in China


  • Matthew Perry opened up trade with Japan for the United States

  • The Meiji Emperor and his advisors rapidly westernized to avoid colonization and imperialism by the United States and European nations

  • Built a new strong military and reformed its political and economic systems to become more like western powers

  • Japan became more modernized, industrialized, and imperialist

    • Sino-Japanese War-gained territory in China

    • Russo-Japanese War- defeated Russian military and gained control of parts Manchuria and all of Korea

Japan and the Meiji Restoration

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