English language arts/social studies

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David Helton

Mr. Jackson

English language arts/social studies

3 May 2013

The Fight for Their Rights

The Sudanese Civil War is a horrific event that opened the eyes to millions around the world ("Sudan Civil War"). Hundreds of thousands of people have died from the rebel forces in the southern region and thousands have been separated from their families. There have been two civil wars in the last 50 years the latest one ending in 2005. Both of which have had disgusting events such as child soldiers ("The Lost Boys of the Sudan"). On top of all that Sudan is one of the hottest countries in Africa and has a total of 36 million people living there ("Central Intelligence Agency"). There were a ridicules amount of human right violations going on. Sudan’s second civil war was a horrific event in Sudanese history due to two million people dead and more than 20,000 boys and girls were separated from their families and are still living in refugee camps.

In order to learn about the events in Sudan you have to learn how it started. The second civil war started in 1983 when the Sudanese laws were changed to follow Islamic law ("Timeline: Sudan"). Many of the southerners were Christian or Atheist and disagreed with these acts of the government. Around this same time the Sudanese president violated the Addis Ababa agreement by splitting the north into three provinces ("Sudan Civil War"). The main group of rebels in the south which is known as Sudanese People’s Liberation (SPL) that was led by Jhon Garang struck back against the north. The Sudanese army struck back but only managed to interfere with a shipment of food that caused a serious shortage of food also known as a famine. That is how the second Sudanese war started, fighting between the south and North for another 22 years ("Central Intelligence Agency").

There are many events that went on during the war that affected it in many different ways ("Timeline: Sudan"). In 1988 the Democratic Unionist Party drafts a cease fire but was rejected by the Sudanese People’s Liberation also known as the biggest group of rebels. Later on in

1995 the Egyptian president accused Sudan of helping the attempt to kill him in Addis Ababa. Three years later in 1998 the US launched a missile at Sudan. They did this because they believed that Sudan had the potential for making chemical weapons in one of their pharmaceutical plants in Khartoum. Around this time a few very big refugee camps in

Ethiopia and Kenya were available for anyone separated from their families or looking for a safe place ("Darfur Refugee Camp | Sudan"). The Kenyan camp sent thousands of “lost boys” to the United States and other places to start a new life without the war and violence. There are thousands of people affected by this tragic event and you are going to learn about them in the next paragraph.

Thousands of people have had their lives affected in negative ways because of the gruesome civil war. Hundreds of thousands of people had died from the gory violence caused by southern rebels. The southern rebels kidnapped thousands of boys and girls to fight in armed conflict. These children who were forced to fight are known child soldiers. Approximately 20,000 boys from the ages 7 to 17 traveled to refugee camps in Kenya or Ethiopia. A few years after the camp in Ethiopia opened the residents taking care of the Sudanese people ran them out with guns. They chased all of the refugees to a river and forced them to cross by firing their guns ("The Lost Boys of the Sudan"). However the camp in Kenya was very helpful to the refugees. This camp was sent 100,000 tons of food from a group called Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) who were trying to help stop widespread starvation. The camp along with help from the US and other countries sent about 1,700 boys to America and other places to start a new life without the violence. Some of the boys and young men that were sent to these places around the world are doing well for themselves and start to accept this new life. Some even reunited with their families. Others can get a grip on their new life and turn to violence of drugs. This program ended at 9/11 2001 when the US refused to keep up the program. Still after all of this help by various different groups about 17,000 people remained in the camps for years after 2001. One young man named Simon Majok said "We were suffering because of war. Some have been killed. Some have died because of hunger and disease. We children of the Sudan, we were not lucky."

After twenty three years of gruesome fighting the country decided to try one more attempt at stopping it and the country along with other allies did everything they could. Finally in 2004 Sudan created a peace agreement and were officially signed by both parties the north and the south on January 9th 2005. The agreement also stated that Sudan now had three branches of government which are the same branches America has executive, legislative and judicial. The United States played a key role in enforcing the peace agreement onto the Sudanese government. This agreement didn’t separate the north and south but it did give the south more freedom from the north. This did also lay out the simple groundwork for when south Sudan left the north and became the 193rd UN member state (Lederer).

After the end of the war south Sudan was had a little bit of freedom from the north but they wanted more so they did all they could to become their own nation (“South Sudan becomes world’s newest nation”). In 2011 they reached their goal and become a new country by breaking away from the north to become South Sudan. However in north Sudan, now known as just Sudan there is still the ongoing conflict in Darfur. The Darfur conflict is a horrible event that has resulted in more than one million people dead. Sudan still has people hiding in refugee camps and slums around the capital. All of these horrible events have happened over the last thirty years.

That is just the cover of all of the horrible things that have happened in south and north Sudan during the first and second Sudanese war. Over two million lives effected, over two million violent stories. The situations people have been placed in range from child soldiers to dead and everywhere in between. This war has destroyed lives and I am so grateful it is finally over. Like I said they have broken multiple human rights laws and should have been brought to serious attention much sooner. Sudanese history has been changed due to the horrible events such as the number of deaths and loss of homes and families this war has caused.

Works Cited

"Central Intelligence Agency." CIA. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.

"Darfur Refugee Camp | Sudan." International News | Global News from Around the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

Lederer, Edith M. "South Sudan Becomes World's Newest Nation." Breaking News and Opinion on The Huffington Post. Huffington Post, 9 July 2011. Web. 2 May 2013.

"The Lost Boys of the Sudan." Children in War. N.p., 1996. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.

"Sudan Civil War." GlobalSecurity.org - Reliable Security Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

"Sudan Civil War." GlobalSecurity.org - Reliable Security Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013.

"Sudan." CultureGrams Kids Edition. ProQuest, 2013. Web. 16 Apr 2013.

"Timeline: Sudan." BBC NEWS | News Front Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Apr. 2013.

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