English IV ap/tjc summer Reading 2015 Read each of the following books: Anonymous’ Beowulf (Any translation is fine – some are more “poetic” than others) Alexandre Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo



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English IV AP/TJC

Summer Reading 2015
Read each of the following books:
Anonymous’ Beowulf (Any translation is fine – some are more “poetic” than others)

Alexandre Dumas’ The Count of Monte Cristo (Any translation is fine, and you may read the “abridged” version)
I have included information you should read before beginning each book. As you read, mark unfamiliar vocabulary and allusions and annotate the text, making note of setting, characterization, imagery, point of view, theme, and other literary elements. This activity should become habitual when analyzing literature. (You will not receive extra credit for annotating, but you are strongly urged to do it as preparation for your tests).
*You will be tested over both books during the first week of school.
Content Disclaimer
Whether taken for AP or dual credit, the course is college level as per the requirements of the College Board and Tyler Junior College. Advanced English courses deal with all facets of living; consequently, there will be talk of life, death, and of the various human desires. There will be transgressive language, as well as beautiful language, contained in the works we study. You can expect mature discussion of a variety of subjects as prompted by the work under examination. This course will deal with both fiction and non-fiction works.
As we proceed through the school year, you will need to make use of certain materials. The following, though not exhaustive, is a list of items that would be especially helpful:
Pencils/erasers

Pens


Paper

Folder/binder

Computer (the library provides access before and after school if necessary)

Printer


Flash drive
Your teacher will distribute more specific information about the course and its requirements at the beginning of the school year. Until then, enjoy your summer!

Mr. Varvel

English Academic Chair

Email: VarvelM@whitehouseisd.org


Basic Literary Elements
Setting - make notes about the time, place, etc.



Characters- make note of each character’s name the first time you see it. Also mark the passages that describe the character’s: • Physical appearance

• Motivations behind his/her actions

• Relationships to other characters

• Personality (especially changes in personality)
Plot - events of rising action, climax, falling action and resolution • Identify conflict types (Man vs. Man, Man vs. Self, Man vs. Nature, etc.)

• Make notes periodically at the tops of pages to help you remember


Vocabulary-Look up words you do not understand. When you find a definition for the word, you may want to write a synonym out to the side.
Tone – Tone is the attitude implied in a literary work toward the subject and the audience. The following figures of speech may help when identifying tone in literature.
Metaphor -comparison between two otherwise unlike things (i.e. Love is a rose, Life is a roller coaster, All the world’s a stage, etc.)
Simile –comparison of two things often using “like” or “as” (i.e. Brave as a lion, Fits like a glove, Moves like a snail, etc)
Diction – words with significant connotation (beyond the literal meaning)
Imagery – appeals to any one of the five senses (taste, touch, smell, sight, hearing)
Details – important and noteworthy facts
Language – the sound of the text (formal, informal, colloquial/particular geographical location, etc.)
Syntax – basic sentence structure, punctuation, arrangement of words in a sentence, etc.
Point of View - The way the events of a story are communicated from the author to the reader. For further details look up the definitions for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd - person POV.
FOCUS ON QUOTES

Quotes can be any length, but try to be clear, concise, and focused in your selections. The following suggestions may be helpful in identifying quotes:

Important or Striking Passages • Make note of quotes that you find interesting, or that “speak” to you in some way.
Confusing Passages • If you find yourself baffled, offended, or puzzled, you may want to write a question in the margin to mark that passage/quote for clarification or discussion at a later time.
Thought-Provoking Passages • Look for passages that might provoke discussion about book.

• Make connections to movies, current issues, history, or other pieces of literature.

• Look for commentary on issues of a social, emotional, ethical (moral), or spiritual nature.

• Examination of human nature in general or how the book does or does not hold true today.



Beowulf
As preparation, do a little research about Epic Poems, Epic Heroes, the Anglo-Saxons, and the tradition of passing down poems orally to subsequent generations. Also, research what “kennings” are and how they work, as well as “alliteration.” You will need this background information, and your junior research paper experience should have taught you how to find it.

STUDY GUIDE You should read the questions for each group of chapters before reading those chapters because they will get you thinking about the ideas you may be tested over. You are not asked to write out answers, although you may if you wish. Extra credit will not be awarded for writing out responses.
Prelude


  1. What does the word “hark” mean?




  1. What is suggested by the opening line, “We have heard of the kings…”?




  1. How does a young future king ensure that warriors will support him once he is ruler?




  1. Who is the “Wielder of Wonder” referred to in the Prelude?




  1. What is the predominant poetic device used in this poem and to what effect? Why

would the Beowulf poet employ a device like this so noticeably?


  1. What are the practices associated with a Viking funeral?


Chapter I


  1. What is the function of Heorot?




  1. Why is Grendel appalled by the activities going on in Heorot?




  1. Who or what is Grendel? Why does he live isolated in the marshes?




  1. What evidence of Christianity is there in this largely pagan poem?




  1. How does the poem blend Christian and pagan myth?


Chapter II


  1. How does the oral tradition help to attract Beowulf to the Danish shore?




  1. What is a kenning, and what does it contribute to the overall effect of the poem?




  1. How does the Danes’ response to Grendel evince a clash of culture between pagan and

Christian cultures?
Chapter III


  1. The phrases “wave-rider” and “swan-road” are examples of what poetic device? What

purpose do they serve?


  1. Why don’t the “wise men” protest the hero’s desire to undertake his adventure?




  1. How and why does the Beowulf poet use simile to describe Beowulf’s sea journey?




  1. Explain the ambiguity of the Danish sentinel’s greeting when Beowulf and his men

arrive on Danish soil.

Chapter IV


  1. What does the phrase “man of many winters” reveal about Ecgtheow?




  1. What effect do examples of alliteration like “broad-bosomed boat,” and “The stalwart

warrior pointed to that scintillating fortress and bade them go straight there; then he

wheeled his steed about like a mighty warrior, and gave a parting word” have?:
Chapter V


  1. What motif is emphasized by the herald’s reaction to the arrival of the Geats?




  1. What practice engrained in the heroic code is illustrated by the term “giver of rings”?




  1. In this chapter is the first time we learn the name of the leader of the Geats. What is it?


Chapter VI


  1. The poet’s identifying Hrothgar as “the crown of the Scyldings” is an example of what

figurative device?


  1. What is significant about (1) the request that Beowulf and his men leave their weapons

and armor outside when they enter Heorot and (2) their willingness to do so.


  1. What do we learn of Beowulf’s ancestry, heritage, and previous connection to

Hrothgar’s court?


  1. In what manner of combat does Beowulf boast that he will defeat Grendel?




  1. What does Beowulf request should be done with his armor and weaponry in case he

doesn’t succeed in his battle against Grendel? What piece does he specifically mention?

Why is this one special?




Chapter VII


  1. What is a likely reason for beginning this chapter with phrasing identical to the

previous chapter?


  1. What previous services did Hrothgar provide to Beowulf’s father? How does this history

alter the nature of Beowulf’s quest?


  1. How did Hrothgar become king of the Danes?


Chapter VIII


  1. What do Unferth’s words expressing his doubt about Beowulf’s fight with the sea

monsters reveal about his character?


  1. Are we to see Beowulf as excessively boastful? Why or why not?


Chapter IX


  1. How, finally, does Beowulf succeed in silencing Unferth, who had questioned Beowulf’s

swimming feat and battle with the sea-monsters?


  1. What is Wealhtheow’s role in Hrothgar’s court?




  1. What is the significance of the kenning used to describe Hrothgar: “The jewel-giver was

then joyous; white-haired and brave in war, he awaited the help of the prince of the

glorious Danes”?


Chapter X


  1. What does Beowulf’s decision to fight without weapons reveal about his character?




  1. What is suggested by the final paragraph of this chapter?




  1. What thought troubles Beowulf’s men as they fall asleep in the hall?


Chapter XI


  1. What narrative technique does the poet use to transition between Chapters X and XI?

What effect is created by this transition?


  1. What does Grendel do to his victims?




  1. At what point does Beowulf seize Grendel to fight him?




  1. How heroic is Grendel? How do you know?


Chapter XII


  1. What, apparently, is the source of Grendel’s invincibility?




  1. How does Beowulf defeat Grendel?




  1. Thematically, why is the way Beowulf fights Grendel significant?




  1. What does the end of the chapter suggest is as important as the Danes’ being free from

Grendel’s tyranny?
Chapter XIII


  1. What reminder of the oral tradition are we given in this chapter?




  1. The contention that Sigemund received “no little fame” after his death is an example of

what rhetorical device? What effect is achieved?


  1. How do the Danes ensure that Beowulf’s victory will be remembered?


Chapters XIV and XV


  1. What is the first thing Hrothgar does upon seeing Grendel’s severed arm? Why is this

significant?


  1. In what condition is Heorot? Why?




  1. What is implied by the introduction of Hrothulf?




  1. What is further foreshadowed by the poet’s noting that, at this celebration, “Heorot was

now filled with friends; no Scylding folk had yet attempted treachery”?


  1. List the gifts that Hrothgar gives to Beowulf.


Chapter XVI


  1. What other benefits or gifts does Hrothgar bestow to signify his munificence?




  1. According to the narrator, what were the factors that ultimately decided the Danes and

Geats’ success?


  1. What does the kenning used to refer to a battle contribute to the passage?




  1. What effect is achieved through the alliteration that describes Hildeburh’s reaction upon

hearing of the her son’s death?


  1. Who is Hildeburh, and how does the story that involves her, Finn, and the Frisians

figure into the narrative of this chapter?


  1. What potential future event does the theme of the bard’s song portray?


Chapters XVII and XVIII


  1. How does Chapter XVII begin? What language convention cues the reader to this?




  1. What is a “lay,” as when the poet says, “The lay, that bardic ballad, was sung to its end”?




  1. What role does hyperbole play in the poet’s telling of the Beowulf tale?




  1. How do Wealhtheow’s speech and actions exemplify important aspects of the warrior code?




  1. What implicit warning and potential foreshadowing does Wealhtheow’s speech contain?

(Note that scholars of Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian literature generally agree that

Hrothulf was Hrothgar’s nephew and did rule Denmark as king after Hrothgar’s death.)




  1. What problem does the second paragraph of Chapter XVIII present to the narrative?

How can a reader rectify this problem?


  1. On what notes of foreshadowing does Chapter XVIII end?


Chapter XIX


  1. Explain the problem Chapter XIX presents in the chronology of the poem.




  1. As we are reminded again, who was Grendel’s (and his mother’s) infamous, Old

Testament ancestor?


  1. What might explain the apparent disruption to the chronology of the poem and the

poet’s decision to remind his listener/reader of the monsters’ relationship to Cain?


  1. How does the reminder of Grendel and his mother’s ancestry shape how they are to be

interpreted in the Anglo-Saxon/Scandinavian culture of the poem?


  1. What is significant about the fact that the avenger is Grendel’s mother and not his father

or some male relative?


  1. How fearsome a monster is Grendel’s mother? Why?


Chapters XX and XXI


  1. How do Grendel and his mother suggest a mixing of pagan and Christian traditions in

the culture of the poem?


  1. How do Beowulf’s words about revenge invite us to reevaluate Grendel’s mother’s attack

on Heorot?


  1. Who is “Ecglaf’s son,” who lends the famous sword, Hrunting, to Beowulf? Under what

circumstances was this character first introduced to us?
Chapter XXII


  1. Of what promise does Beowulf remind Hrothgar before he plunges into his Underworld

adventure?


  1. What supernatural elements are present in this episode that were not present in the fight

against Grendel?

  1. Who is the “wolf of the waves”?




  1. List some significant differences between Beowulf’s fight with Grendel and his fight with

Grendel’s mother.


  1. According to the Beowulf poet, what leads to Beowulf’s victory against Grendel’s mother?


Chapter XXIII


  1. What is the “heirloom of warriors” described in the chapter, and why is it important?




  1. What apparently supernatural aid does Beowulf receive in his battle in the underwater cave?




  1. What is Beowulf’s first action upon defeating Grendel’s mother?




  1. What is different between the way the Danes and the Geats react when Beowulf does

not return immediately from his battle with Grendel’s mother? What do their different

reactions reveal about the two tribes?




  1. Why doesn’t Beowulf take any treasure from the monsters’ lair?


Chapters XXIV, XXV, and XXVI


  1. How does Beowulf explain his victory when he returns to Heorot?




  1. What scene is etched around the sword hilt that Beowulf presents to Hrothgar?




  1. What is the point of the story of Heremond that Hrothgar tells Beowulf?




  1. What is the name of the “overweening pride” against which Hrothgar warns Beowulf?




  1. What noble deed indicates Beowulf’s sincere respect for the Danes?




  1. On what note do Beowulf and his men take their leave of Hrothgar and the Danes?


Chapters XXVII and XXVIII


  1. Who is the “boat warden” to whom Beowulf gives the precious sword?




  1. From suggestions in the text, how large can it be inferred the Geats’ ship is?




  1. Who is Hygd? Why doesn’t the poet identify her more clearly for the listener/reader?




  1. Who is the queen whose beauty was so great that any thane who looked at her was

immediately executed? How does she fit into the narrative at this point?


  1. Briefly summarize the story of Thyrth.




  1. What is the most likely purpose of the information presented in this chapter?




  1. Who is most likely “Hæreth’s daughter”? Why do you think so?




  1. Who are Frearwaru and Froda, and how do they figure into the narrative at this point?




  1. Whom is Beowulf quoting in the paragraph that begins, “Can’t you, my comrade,

recognize that sword…”? What is happening in this part of the narrative?


  1. What is the name of the Geat who was devoured by Grendel on the night of

Beowulf’s battle?


  1. How does Beowulf’s account of his combat with Grendel differ from the account we

were given earlier?
Chapters XXIX – XXXI


  1. What do we learn is the actual relationship between Beowulf and Hygelac?




  1. What does Beowulf do with the treasure he received from Hrothgar?




  1. What happens to the Geats in the years following Beowulf’s return from the land of

the Danes?
Chapters XXXII and XXXIII


  1. What is ironic about the theft that stirs the dragon’s anger?




  1. What is one key difference between the dragon’s raids on the Geatish countryside and

Grendel’s earlier attacks on the Danes?


  1. What do the dragon’s raids do to Beowulf that is even worse than the destruction of

physical property?


  1. What does the poet suggest is going to happen between Beowulf and the dragon?




  1. Once again, the poet departs from the narrative to provide detailed backstory. What

episode from Beowulf’s life is recounted in this chapter?


  1. Who is Heardred?


Chapters XXXIV and XXXV


  1. Who is the thirteenth man who accompanies Beowulf and his warriors to the dragons’ lair?




  1. What is Beowulf’s mood as he goes into battle with the dragon?




  1. Why does Beowulf, once again, provide narrative about the deaths of Hygelac’s brothers

and the war between the Geats and the Swedes?


  1. Why does Beowulf apologize for carrying weapons against the dragon?




  1. What figurative and rhetorical devices predominate in the description of Beowulf’s battle

with the dragon? What effect do they create?
Chapters XXXVI and XXXVII


  1. What is significant about the introduction of a new character, Wiglaf, at this point in the

story? What does Wiglaf represent?


  1. How is the dragon eventually defeated? What is the narrative significance of this victory?




  1. What is Beowulf’s request of Wiglaf once the dragon has been defeated?


Chapters XXXVIII and XXXIX


  1. What effect is created by the alliteration of the “w” sound at the beginning of Chapter

XXXVIII?


  1. Why does Beowulf react as he does to seeing the dragon’s treasure? What has treasure

come to represent in this poem?


  1. How does Beowulf reward Wiglaf for his loyalty and support? What is significant about

the treasure he gives Wiglaf?


  1. What is Wiglaf’s message to his kinsmen?


Chapters XL – XLIII


  1. What is the basis for the herald’s prediction of war?




  1. Who was Hæthcyn?




  1. What purpose does the story of the battle at Ravenswood serve at this point in the narrative?




  1. What is to happen to Beowulf’s treasure? The Dragon’s treasure?




  1. What element of poetic justice does the poet insert into the beginning of Chapter XLII?




  1. What motif does the line, “Yet it was not greed for gold, but heaven’s grace that the king

had ever kept in view,” develop even at the end of the poem?


  1. How does the end of Chapter XLII contradict what we were told in Chapter XLI?




  1. With what literary and rhetorical device does the poet end his tale? What effect does

he create?

Guide to The Count of Monte Cristo



Intro to the Adventure

Written around 1844, The Count of Monte Cristo is one of Alexandre Dumas’ (DOO-MAH) most famous and beloved novels and was a huge bestseller. The Count was originally serialized (published in installments in a magazine or newspaper), and that's why there are so many plot twists and turns, so many cliffhangers. He had to write chapters every week that would make readers want the next installment. In order to hold his readers' interest, he had to make sure his chapters were juicy and full of action.

We all love the idea of justice, and sometimes we want to take matters into our own hands to ensure that justice prevails. Just consider the trouble the Count goes through to seek revenge for having been unjustly imprisoned. He makes revenge an art form! Revenge becomes a creative project for the Count, and he is constantly developing intricate plans to ruin his enemies' lives. We readers might enjoy his creativity and ingenuity because we all know exactly what injustice feels like. It feels good to know that those who thought they could get away with doing something mean or selfish cannot.

SETTING

The novel takes place almost entirely in France, initially at Marseilles (MAR-SAY) on the southern coast of France. When Edmond Dantès (DON-TEZZ) is sent to the Chateau d’If (SHA-TOE DEEF), a political prison, he is kept on a small island just off the southern coast of France. After escaping the prison years later, Dantès spends some time on the Island of Monte Cristo, a small island between Italy and Corsica. Dantès will meet two characters (Albert de Morcerf and Franz d’Epinay) in Rome, Italy, and the rest of the novel is primarily set in Paris. The last few chapters, however, return full circle to Marseilles.

The novel begins on February 24, 1815, around the time of Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo. The French King has just been restored to the throne and is anxious to hang onto his power, which has been in jeopardy since the French Revolution of 1789. The novel spans a time period of about 20-25 years, ending sometime in the 1840s. During this time, Napoleon will return briefly to power for a period known as the Hundred Days, after which the monarchy will again gain power.

Dumas' novel also covers French societal customs of the period. For instance, it was certainly possible that a political prisoner would be forgotten in prison, though political prisoners normally stayed for a year. Another feature of 19th century post-Napoleonic society that Dumas illustrates is the humble origins of many of the most influential persons of Parisien society. Danglars (DONG-LAHR), The Count de Morcerf (MORE-SAYRF), and Villefort (VEAL-UH-FOR) represent three different means by which an individual of humble origin entered elite Parisien society. One is financial (Danglars), Morcerf represents military and political advancement, and Villefort's advancement is judicial. Other features of society outlined by Dumas are the theatrical shows the elite attend (such as the Opera), and the trend to purchase a house in Parisien suburbs, such as the Count did in Auteuil (OH-TEEL).

More detailed information on historical setting and locations: http://www.shmoop.com/count-of-monte-cristo/setting.html

Genre: Adventure, Historical Fiction, Morality Tale

It has tons of treasure, a secret island hideout, secret identities, duels, gory executions, bandits and smugglers galore, all topped with a healthy dose of revenge. All of this happens during a particularly chaotic time in French history – the whole thing wouldn't have happened without Napoleon's attempt to regain power. Also, all the Count's revenge antics raise some very serious questions of morality, forcing us to think about big things like Fate, Free Will, and Justice.



Point of View: Third Person Omniscient

Dumas has total control of the book's narrative – sort of like the Count himself when you think about it. He can switch the focus of the story abruptly, as he does when we're first introduced to Franz d'Epinay. Dumas doesn't do much with the "inner monologue" of his characters – oftentimes when they're thinking something, they simply say it.

Having said all this, you should note that at a few points during the novel he lets the characters themselves narrate the action; we get to hear Bertuccio's take on the (unsuccessful) murder of de Villefort and Haydée's account of her father's betrayal. These are exceptions to the rule, though. Dumas is usually reading minds and calling the shots.

Imagery/Symbolism

Monte Cristo = Mountain of Christ

We can infer an allusion to Calvary and the cross of Christ or it could be some reference to Dantes’ own personal suffering. In a way, the Count returns from the “dead” to pronounce judgment on some people.

Of course, Dumas wants us to know that it is all those things: Monte Cristo's name – taken from the name of the island – and coat of arms recalls the suffering of Christ on the cross; Edmond Dantès's personal suffering reminds us of the same, and his rebirth as the Count reminds of Christ's resurrection. He, like Jesus, emerges from a cave – although in Edmond's case the cave contains a big chest of gold and jewels.

Romeo and Juliet

Dumas practically rewrites Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet over the course of this novel. Dumas's version of Romeo and Juliet stars Max Morrel and Valentine de Villefort.

According to Valentine's father, Max is not wealthy enough to marry her. The two must meet secretly in the garden, for Valentine has been promised to another, more eligible bachelor. The two promise to marry anyway, and with the help of Valentine’s grandfather and the Count, they do. The Count's plan involves secret and super hardcore sleeping pills that Valentine takes. Max and the rest of the world think that Valentine has died as a result of being poisoned, but she’s really just asleep. The Count convinces Max to wait for one month before committing suicide, which Max really wants to do because life isn't worth living without his Valentine. When that month is over, the Count gives Max a pill he promises will kill him. But the pill merely puts Max to sleep, and when he wakes up, Valentine is there to kiss him.

This is the happy version of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, where the lovers actually live happily ever after in each other's arms – the ending we always want when we see Shakespeare's play acted out.



THEMES

The novel is an extremely moral one at heart, dealing primarily with ideas of God, religion, the relationships between men, and the conflict between good and evil. Dumas bases the novel around the overall theme of revenge and its implications (specifically: good vs. evil, man vs. man and man vs. God, punishment and reward, the relationship between suffering and happiness, the importance of hope, man as his own authority, the relationship of man with society) explored as supporting themes which result from the act of revenge itself.

The novel also addresses the issue of "circumstance" without necessarily addressing it as a "theme." Almost all the characters find themselves a "victim of circumstance" at some point, and rapid changes in the characters’ circumstances show the temporary nature of circumstance. Characters that are burdened by suffering one day are suddenly wealthy and successful the next, while characters that are successful and wealthy one day are suddenly poor and uncovered as frauds the next.

Protagonist

Edmond Dantès is the protagonist, and may be classified as a "Byronic hero." A Byronic hero (from the writings of the 18 th century British poet Lord Byron) is essentially a lonely, rebellious, and brooding hero who does not possess what we usually think of as "heroic virtue." Instead, Byronic heroes have dark qualities which are usually supplemented by intelligence and self-respect. They will often be isolated from society in some way. The Byronic hero is moody or passionate about specific issues, is often arrogant, confident, and may be a figure of repulsion as well as fascination. If you think about superheroes, he is more like Batman (moody rule-breaker) and less like Superman (Boy Scout).

In this sense, Dantès is the epitome of the Byronic hero, condemned to suffer alone in prison, emerging wiser and intent on revenge. To ensure his plans for revenge are carried out, he spends years learning everything about everything, and is finally fully confident in his abilities to punish his enemies. It’s sort of like how Bruce Wayne wants revenge for the murder of his parents and spends years developing his abilities before becoming the vengeful Batman. Except the Count did it 100 years earlier!

Dantès is convinced that his quest for revenge is being guided by God and he will succeed, though not without feeling guilty, which renders him still a sympathetic and likeable character.



Antagonists

There are three antagonists: Danglars, Fernand (FAIR-NAW), and M. de Villefort. When Dantès learns that these three men are responsible for his suffering in jail and his lost years, he will set out on a mission of revenge to punish them. Along the way, he will seek to punish evil wherever he finds it, and will therefore punish a number of people, although these three characters are those that initially give rise to Dantès’ thirst for revenge.



Character List: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/montecristo/characters.html

Vocabulary

  1. melancholy (1) – adj. mournful; depressed n. a gloomy state of mind, esp. when prolonged or habitual

  2. obsequious (2) – adj. servilely (utterly) compliant or deferential

  3. promontory (11)—n. a high ridge of land or rock jutting out into a body of water

  4. imperiously (13)—adj. arrogantly domineering or overbearing

  5. usurper (21)—n. one who seizes and holds (the power or rights of another) by force or without legal authority; to take over or occupy without right

  6. maxim (25) – n. a principle of conduct

  7. imprudence (28)—n. the quality or condition of being unwise or indiscreet

  8. fetid (33) – adj. having an offensive odor

  9. impregnate (33) – v. to infuse or saturate something thoroughly

  10. alacrity (36)—n. cheerful willingness; eagerness

  11. benevolence (41)—n. an inclination to perform kind, charitable acts; a kindly act

  12. sublime (41) – adj. elevated or lofty in thought, language, etc.; inspiring awe; impressing the mind with a sense of grandeur

  13. ingenuity (54) – n. inventive talent; cleverness or skillfulness of conception or design

  14. pretext (67) – n. that which is presented to conceal a true purpose or object; an ostensible reason

  15. assiduous (69)—adj. constant in application or attention; diligent; unceasing; persistent

  16. incredulity (72) – n. absolute refusal of belief

  17. plaintive (73)—adj. expressing sorrow; mournful or melancholy

  18. livid (74) – adj. deathly pale; pallid; ashen; enraged; furiously angry

  19. effusive (110) – adv. pouring out; overflowing (emotionally)

  20. scrupulous (112) – adj.conscientious and exact; painstaking

  21. enumeration (118) – n. A detailed account, in which each thing is specially noticed

  22. irreproachable (128)—adj. perfect or blameless in every respect; faultless

  23. procured (133) – v. obtain or get by care, effort, or the use of special means

  24. infamy (139)—n. evil fame or reputation; an evil or criminal act that is publicly known

  25. torpor (141)—n. a state of mental or physical inactivity or insensibility; lethargy; apathy

  26. infallible (168) – adj. unfailing in effectiveness or operation; certain

  27. acrid (168)—adj. unpleasantly sharp, pungent, or bitter to the taste or smell; caustic in language or tone

  28. languishing (175) – adj. indicating tender, sentimental melancholy

  29. entreaty (207)—n. an earnest request or petition; plea

  30. sonorous (215) – adj. rich and full in sound, as language or verse

  31. avarice (243) – n. insatiable greed for riches

  32. enmity (245) – n. a feeling or condition of hostility; hatred; animosity

  33. supplication (290)—n. a humble or earnest prayer or petition

  34. oscillation (291) – n. fluctuation between beliefs, opinions, conditions

  35. implacable (310) – adj. not to be appeased or pacified (refusal to be satisfied)

  36. indomitable (354)—adj. incapable of being overcome, subdued, or vanquished; unconquerable

  37. approbation (355)—n. an expression of warm approval; praise; official approval

  38. strident (399) – adj. having a shrill, irritating quality or character

  39. callous (436) – adj. insensitive; indifferent; unsympathetic

  40. vindictive (495) – adj. disposed or inclined to revenge; vengeful

  41. sepulcher (510)—n. a burial vault; a receptacle for sacred relics

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