English History to 1688 History 123



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English History to 1688

History 123

History 123, 2011

  • Syllabus is at http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/123/123outline.htm

  • Lecture outlines at http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/123/contents.htm

  • Weekly readings at http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/123/123brief.htm

  • Home page: http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/

Click on “Essays and papers” for information on how to do exams and term papers well.

Requirements

  • Two Midterms (in class 10/10, 11/21)

  • A final (Monday 12/19, 12:25 PM; place to be announced)

  • Four credit students do a 5-6 page paper due 10/28

  • Honors students do an extra paper, due 12/14

  • Attend discussion section; attendance and participation there count for 20% of the grade. Contact your TA if you need to miss discussion.

  • Readings: your TA will provide details

How much are the exams (etc.) worth?


  • 3 credit students: classroom participation 20%; each mid-term 20%; final 40%

  • 4 credit students: classroom participation 20%; term paper 25%; each mid-term 13.75%; final 27.5%

  • 3 credit honors students: classroom participation 20%; term paper 25%; each mid-term 13.75%; final 27.5%

  • 4 credit honors students: classroom participation 20%; each term paper 15%; each mid-term 12.5%; final 25%

123: Introduction

  • Geography of the British Isles; small size

  • How did a group of small islands off the coast of the Northeastern European mainland become a world power?

  • Influence of England/ Britain through language, culture and the common law

  • Moderate climate; the Gulf Stream, and winds

Key Terms

  • England

  • Scotland

  • Wales

  • (Great) Britain

  • United Kingdom (UK) (= Britain + Northern Ireland)

  • Ireland

Geography and its effects

  • Counties/ Shires (52 in England and Wales)

  • Shire Reeve = Sheriff

  • Islands/ Isles

  • England unconquered since 1066 (William the Conqueror)

  • Social and political conservatism; slow, long-term developments largely uninfluenced from outside

  • Importance of class distinctions, linked to region

  • Great Inequalities of wealth; survival of monarchy and aristocracy

Class and Accent

  • Queen Elizabeth II is descended from the Kings of Wessex in the 500s

  • An adaptable upper class; an open aristocracy/ nobility; London and the Grosvenor Dukes of Westminster; Chelsea

  • Received Pronunciation (RP)

  • Oxbridge (Oxford and Cambridge); Public Schools

  • England’s early revolution: the English Revolution (1640s) and Restoration (1660)

  • Regional accents: Scouse (Liverpool; Beatles); Cockney (London) (also Mockney); Geordie (Newcastle); Brummie (Birmingham)

Regions

  • Dominance of South and East; good arable land; close to Continental Europe (21 miles from Dover to Calais)

  • London; the river Thames; the Home Counties (e.g. Kent, the Garden of England; Essex; Middlesex)

  • Midlands; East Anglia

  • North, West and Wales hillier and less wealthy; pasture farming common there, especially sheep farming, producing wool and woolen cloth – long England’s main exports

  • Shires/ counties (from 974; remodeled 1974)

  • County towns (e.g. Oxford/ Oxfordshire; Cambridge/ Cambridgeshire; Matlock/ Derbyshire; Reading/ Berkshire)

Towns, cities, counties, and resources

  • Yorkshire (three “ridings” = thirdings)

  • York; Sheffield; Leeds; Industrial Revolution (late 1700s-1800s)

  • Lancashire; Liverpool; Manchester

  • Northumberland; Newcastle; coal

  • Cornwall: tin; Derbyshire: lead

  • Midlands: Birmingham; Coventry; iron. Oxford, Northampton

  • East Anglia: Norwich (Norfolk); Cambridge

  • West country: Bristol (Gloucestershire); Exeter (Devon)

  • Wales: silver

  • Cities; cathedrals; Bishops; Archbishops (Canterbury; York)

Some constant factors

  • Illiteracy

  • The Monarchy; Parliament = Monarch + House of Lords + House of Commons; importance of 1688

  • Poverty and Disease (Black Death 1348-9; plague)

  • Low population (England and Wales):

400: 3.5 million 600: 1 1300: 6.5 1450: 2.25 1620: 5 1700: 5.5

1800: 9 1900: 32.5 2000: 51.9

(N.B. high modern population density)

England and Wales: Population to 2000

England and Wales: Population to 1700

Monetary Units

£sd system (£ = pound; s = shilling; d = penny)

£1 (1 pound) = 20s (20 shillings) (1 guinea = £1 1s)


1s (1 shilling) = 12d (12 pence or pennies)


1 groat = 4d (4 pence)
1 mark = 13s 4d (13 shillings and 4 pence; two thirds of a pound)
1 noble (later 1 angel) = 6s 8d (6 shillings and 8 pence; one third of a pound).
Subdivisions of the penny included the halfpenny and farthing (half and a quarter of a penny respectively)



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