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13 Chen
Conclusion
In
Nineteen Eighty-Four
​and ​Fahrenheit 451​, the dichotomy between the passive and active women is a necessity in the making of the protagonist the active woman inspires the protagonist to defy his totalitarian regime, whilst the passive woman reminds the protagonist of the daunting reality that he must rebel against. Although the active women, Julia and
Clarisse, have agency in defying anti-leisure and regaining their personal leisure space, their agency remains only temporary as soon as they inspire the protagonist to rebel against his regime, they are cast aside and ultimately become, like Katharine and Mildred, passive to the power of authority. As both novels are written through the perspective of a male protagonist, Julia and Clarisse’s activeness is ultimately surpassed, for the protagonist is the one who is ultimately responsible for taking on the active role female characters are reduced to mere plot devices for the means of the protagonist’s character development. Nonetheless, Julia and
Clarisse’s momentary agency still embody the essence of anti-totalitarianism, one that represents a step towards the development of subsequent feminist dystopias. Word count 3570 Note
1. Di Minico discusses how the control of personal leisure space contributes to the
“disempowerment of the female gender (2) in the context of three dystopian works written by female authors
Woman on the Edge of Time
​(1976)​ ​and ​The Handmaid’s
Tale
​(1985)​ ​both feature female protagonists, whereas Katharine Burdekin’s ​Swastika
Night
​(1937) feature a male protagonist.


14 Chen Works Cited Bradbury, Ray.
Fahrenheit 451
​. 1953. Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, 2012.
Cixous, Hélène, and Catherine Clément. Sorties Out and Out Attacks/Ways Out/Forays.”
The Newly Born Woman
​. Translated by Betsy Wing. U of Minnesota P. 1975, pp.
63-132. Daniels, Margaret J, and Heather E. Bowen. Feminist Implications of Anti-leisure in
Dystopian Fiction
Journal of Leisure Research
​, vol. 35, no. 4, 2003, pp. 423-40.
EBSCOhost
​, doi:10.1080/00222216.2003.11950004. Accessed 5 Dec. 2019. Di Minico, Elisabetta. Spatial and Psychophysical Domination of Women in Dystopia:
Swastika Night
​, ​Woman on the Edge of Time​ and ​The Handmaid’s Tale​.” ​Humanities​, vol. 8, no. 38, 2019, pp. 1-15.
EBSCOhost
​, doi:10.3390/h8010038. Accessed 5 Dec.
2019.
Eller, Jonathan R. Speaking Futures The Road to
Fahrenheit 451
​.” ​Critical Insights​. Grey House Publishing, 2014.
EBSCOhost
​, web.a.ebscohost.com.autorpa.lib.fju.edu.tw:2048/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=2bb4 79cc-ae13-4fc3-ae7a-f83f91f5ac8d%40sdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=Jmxhbmc9emgtdHc mc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#AN=101665726&db=lkh. Accessed 5 Dec. 2019.
Fokkema, Douwe. Utopias, Dystopias, and Their Hybrid Variants in Europe and America since World War Ii Perfect Worlds Utopian Fiction in China and the West

​, Amsterdam UP, 2011.
JSTOR
​, www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt46mwnv.20. Accessed 5 Dec.
2019.
Halberstam, Michael. Totalitarianism as a Problem for the Modern Conception of Politics
Political Theory
​, vol. 26, no. 4, 1998, pp. 459-88. ​JSTOR​, www.jstor.org/stable/192200. Accessed 31 Dec. 2019.


15 Chen
Mulvey, Laura. Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema
Visual and Other Pleasures
​.
Palgrave, 1989, pp. 14-26. Orwell, George.
Nineteen Eighty-Four
​. 1949. Signet Classics, 1950.


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