The story of the Jewish people begins with the Patriarch Abraham. Abraham was 75 years old when he is called by God to leave the country of his father who had earlier moved from the city of Ur to Haran. The Lord tells Abraham to go to the land of Moriah now known as Israel or Palestine..
1 Now the LORD had said to Abram: “Get out of your country, From your family And from your father’s house, To a land that I will show you.
2 I will make you a great nation; I will bless you And make your name great; And you shall be a blessing.
3 I will bless those who bless you, And I will curse him who curses you; And in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.” Genesis 12:1-3
When Abraham arrives in Moriah The Lord makes a promise to Abraham.
7Then the Lord appeared to Abram and said, “To your descendants I will give this land.” And there he built an altar to the LORD, who had appeared to him. Genesis 12:7
Abraham would later have a son Ishmael through his Egyptian servant Hagar when he was 86 years old. Still later when Abraham was 100 he had a child by his 90 year old wife Sarah fulfilling a promise by the Lord to Abraham. God would bless Ishmael but the covenant that God established with Abraham would be through Sarah and not Hagar.
19Then God said: “No, Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you shall call his name Isaac; I will establish My covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his descendants after him.20And as for Ishmael, I have heard you. Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly. He shall beget twelve princes, and I will make him a great nation. 21But My covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you at this set time next year.” 22Then He finished talking with him, and God went up from Abraham. Genesis 17:19-22
Ishmael would later be sent to away to protect the rights of Isaac’s inheritance.
In a test of Abraham’s faith God asked Abraham to take Isaac to Mt. Moriah and sacrifice him to the Lord. As Abraham was about to slay the child The Angel of the Lord prevented the sacrifice. The Angel of the Lord would declare to Abraham.
“By Myself I have sworn, says the LORD, because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son—17blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply your descendants as the stars of the heaven and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies. 18In your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.” Genesis 22:16-18
Jacob 2000 BC
Isaac would later have two sons Jacob and Esau the covenant blessing would pass to Jacob Isaac's second born.
29 Let peoples serve you, And nations bow down to you Be master over your brethren, And let your mother’s sons bow down to you. Cursed be everyone who curses you, And blessed be those who bless you!” Genesis 27:9
After Jacob is blessed he escapes his brother Esau’s anger by going to Haran. Where his grandfather Abraham was from. There Jacob marries Leah and Rachel. Two sisters, and daughters of Labin his mother’s brother. From Leah and Rachel and their handmaids Bilhah and Zilpah Jacob has 13 children, 12 sons and 1 daughter.
On the way back to the land of Moriah Jacob is renamed Israel after coming face to face with God.
28And He said, “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but £Israel; for you have struggled with God and with men, and have prevailed.”29Then Jacob asked, saying, “Tell me Your name, I pray.” And He said, “Why is it that you ask about My name?” And He blessed him there. 30So Jacob called the name of the place £Peniel: “For I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.” Genesis 32:28-30
Joseph sold 1910 BC
Joseph the second youngest son is sold into Egypt as a slave at the age of 17 by his brothers. But in Egypt rises to role of prime minister by the age of 30. Jacob’s remaining sons flee to Egypt because of famine in the land of Moriah. There Joseph is found by his brothers and family. Joseph offers them the security of Egypt. And the descendents of Jacob settle in the land of Goshen. During the next 400 years they multiply from 70 to over 1 million souls.
But new Egyptian rulers see Israel’s growing descendents as a potential threat to Egypt. To deal with the threat the male children of Israel were ordered destroyed by Pharaoh. But the baby Moses was placed in the water by his mother in a basket to escape the fate of death. Baby Moses is rescued from the water and is raised in the house of Pharaoh's daughter.
Later when Moses was about 40 he flees into the desert of Midian to escape Pharaoh after Moses kills an Egyptian who was mistreating a Hebrew slave. Moses spends the next 40 years in the desert taking care the sheep of Jethro his father-in-law. At the age of 80 God sends him back into Egypt to rescue his people Israel and lead them back into the land of Moriah.
Exodus beings 1446 BC
9Now therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel has come to Me, and I have also seen the oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them. 10Come now, therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh that you may bring My people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.” Exodus 3:9-10
Moses returns to Egypt and with 10 plagues from God on Egypt Pharaoh lets Israel go with Moses into the wilderness of Sinai. This is known as the Exodus journey.
In Sinai God establishes a covenant with the children of Israel. A covenant of blessing and cursing.
1“Now it shall come to pass, if you diligently obey the voice of the LORD your God, to observe carefully all His commandments which I command you today, that the LORD your God will set you high above all nations of the earth. 2And all these blessings shall come upon you and overtake you, because you obey the voice of the LORD your God: Duet 28:1-2
15“But it shall come to pass, if you do not obey the voice of the LORD your God, to observe carefully all His commandments and His statutes which I command you today, that all these curses will come upon you and overtake you: Deut 28:15
Israel rebels against God in the desert of Sinai and the nation spends the next 40 years wandering in the wilderness. After the generation that rebelled dies Joshua is appointed the successor to Moses. Moses is also prevented from entering the land of promise because of his sin.
Israel takes possession of the land 1406 BC
Joshua leads Israel into the land of Canaan/Moriah by conquering the inhabitants of the land. The land conquered and unconquered is divided between the tribes of Israel. The descendents of Israel receive their land based on their descent from the 12 son’s of Jacob.
For the next 400 years Israel is ruled by Judges not by Kings. As they people rebelled God would send judgment but in their despair He would send Judges to give them direction and rescue them. Gideon would rescue them from the Midianites, Samson from the Philistines, Jephthah from the Ammonites and Deborah from the Canaanites. Samuel was the last judge of Israel the people would then want a king like the other nations.
Israel wants a King 1050 BC
The Lord heard the people’s request for a King and tells Samuel to not feel bad because Israel was rejecting God and not Samuel.
7And the LORD said to Samuel, “Heed the voice of the people in all that they say to you; for they have not rejected you, but they have rejected Me, that I should not reign over them. 1 Samuel 8:7
God then appoints Saul from the tribe of Benjamin to become King over Israel in 1050 BC. But Saul’s disobedience causes his kingship to be withdrawn and given to a Shepard boy David son Jesse of the tribe of Judah.
David becomes King in 1025 BC after Saul and his son Jonathan die in battle. David later wants to build a House for God but God thru Nathan the prophet tells David he cannot but his son will build a House. David is also promised by God that through his line the Messiah would come and rule on David’s throne forever.
12“When your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will establish his kingdom. 13He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14I will be his Father, and he shall be My son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men and with the blows of the sons of men.
2 Samuel 7:12-14
Solomon builds the Temple 970 BC
Solomon David’s son builds the Temple of God on the land his father purchased from Ornan. On the same location where Abraham was going to sacrifice his son Isaac. On this location only would Israel be allowed to sacrifice and worship the Lord.
1Now Solomon began to build the house of the LORD at Jerusalem on Mount Moriah, where £the LORD had appeared to his father David, at the place that David had prepared on the threshing floor of Ornan£ the Jebusite
2 Chronicles 3:1
When the temple was complete and dedicated to God the “Glory of the Lord” filled the Temple. God accepted the Temple as His place forever.
3And the LORD said to him: “I have heard your prayer and your supplication that you have made before Me; I have consecrated this house which you have built to put My name there forever, and My eyes and My heart will be there perpetually 1 Kings 9:3
But if Israel disobeyed and turned away from God the Temple would be destroyed and become a proverb amongst the people.
8And as for this house, which is exalted, everyone who passes by it will be astonished and will hiss, and say, ‘Why has the LORD done thus to this land and to this house?’ 1 Kings 9:8
The Kingdom Divided 926 BC
After the death of Solomon his son Rehoboam succeeded him as King. During his reign the northern 10 tribes rebelled and became a separate kingdom. Judah and Benjamin became known as Judah, the southern kingdom.
Northern Kingdom in captivity 722 BC
In 722 BC the Assyrian Kingdom attacked the northern kingdom of Israel and carried them into captivity. The Lord was fulfilling the promises of the Covenant curses for disobedience.
6In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria and carried Israel away to Assyria, and placed them in Halah and by the Habor, the River of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.7For so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, who had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and they had feared other gods, 8and had walked in the statutes of the nations whom the LORD had cast out from before the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they had made. 2 Kings 17:6,7
The Assyrian kingdom was defeated by the Babylon at the battle of Carcemesh 609 BC. The Babylonians became the new masters of the land.
Babylonian captivity 605 BC
The Southern Kingdom of Judah also sinned against God but they were spared an Assyrian victory. In the days of Hezekiah, Judah was supernaturally delivered from king Sennacherib’s attack of Jerusalem in 690 BC. Judah continued to sin after they were delivered from the Assyrian army. God then allowed the Babylonians to attack and defeat Judah.
First in 605 BC when Daniel was carried into the land of Babylon. Again in 597 BC when Ezekiel was taken as captive. And finally in 587 when the city and temple and temple were destroyed in 587 BC.
In 597 BC God laments about the sin taking place in the Temple itself when Ezekiel is allowed to witness.
17And He said to me, “Have you seen this, O son of man? Is it a trivial thing to the house of Judah to commit the abominations which they commit here? For they have filled the land with violence; then they have returned to provoke Me to anger. Indeed they put the branch to their nose. Ezekiel 8:17
Ten years later the Temple is destroyed by the Babylonian armies as punishment for the sins in the land.
Cyrus the Great 539 BC
Cyrus the great the head of the Persian- Median Empire defeats the kingdom of Babylon. Daniel is given a high position in the Persian kingdom. Cyrus has a policy of restoration, he allows the captives of Israel to return to their land. He also allows the rebuilding of the Jewish temple.
Temple work begins 536 BC
Under the leadership of Ezra the Temple is rebuilt but the Temple is not as glorious as Solomon’s Temple. The Temple is completed in 516 BC.
Nehemiah and Jerusalem 444 BC.
The Persian ruler Artaxerexes allows Nehemiah his cupbearer to oversee the reconstruction of the city of Jerusalem.
Alexander the Great 333 BC
The armies of Alexander the great conquer the Persian kingdom.
After the death of Alexander in 323 BC his kingdom is divided between his 4 generals.
Ptolemy I took control of Egypt and the Seleucus I ruled over Syria. These generals would be the founders of the succeeding kingdoms that would fight for the control of Palestine for the next 156 years.
The Old Testament is translated into the Greek language during the reign of Phtolemy of Philadelphus (285-247 BC) in a version known as the Septuagint.
Antiochus Epiphanies 175 BC
Greek Seleucid ruler Antiochus Epiphanies rules Syria from about 175 BC to about 164 BC. He reigns over Judah and tries to destroy the Jewish religion. He has large quantities of the Torah destroyed (the first five books of the modern Bible). He also defiles the Temple by placing an image of Jupiter in the Temple and offering a pig as sacrifice.
Maccabean Kingdom 166-63 BC
The Maccabean revolt opens a way for Jewish independence in Jerusalem and the surrounding area. The revolt is led by Mattathias and his five sons, Judas (Maccabeus), Jonathan, Simon, John and Eleazar. The era of independence runs from about 166-63 BC.
Romans conquer Israel 63 BC
Rome is asked to solve the conflict between two rivals to the Maccabean Kingdom. Roman General Pompey invades and Judaea became a part of the province of Syria in 63 BC (Josephus, BJ, vii, 7). Hyrcanus, brother of the last king, remaines high priest invested with judicial as well as sacerdotal functions.
But later Antony and Octavius give Palestine (40 BC) as a kingdom to Herod, surnamed the Great, although his rule did not become effective until 3 years later. His sovereignty was upheld by a Roman legion stationed at Jerusalem.
Biblical Summary until Christ/New Testament*
The four books listed on top all serve to advance the historic flow, from the creation of the world (Genesis) to the entrance into the promised land (Joshua). These are the historical books. The three books on the bottom do not advance the historic flow and they must be seen in relationship to the historical books. Job was one of the earliest books written, and the events of that book took place sometime during the early history of our world covered by Genesis. Some believe that Job lived around the time of Abraham. Leviticus was Israel's book of worship. Deuteronomy contained final instructions before entering the promised land.
Here is a brief description of these books:
Genesis is the book of beginnings. It traces the beginning of the Universe (the heavens and the earth), the beginning of man, the beginning of woman, the beginning of marriage (our society today desperately needs to understand how God originally instituted and defined marriage), the beginning of children, the beginning of sin, the beginning of death, the beginning of animal sacrifices, the beginning of murder, the beginning of cities, the beginning of nations, the beginning of languages and the beginning of the great nation Israel. The book of Genesis begins with the six days of creation and it ends with the children of Israel in Egypt at the time of Joseph's death. The key divisions of the book are indicated by the phrase, "These are the generations of..."
Exodus (compare the word "Exit") relates God's great deliverance out of Egypt. The law is given to Israel at Mt. Sinai (see chapter 20 where the Ten Commandments are found). The last part of the book is God's detailed blueprint for the tabernacle, God's glorious tent.
Numbers contains the account of Israel's wanderings in the desert for 40 years. In chapter one all the males able to go forth to war, those twenty years old and upward, were numbered (counted), and this is the reason the book is called Numbers.
Joshua tells of Israel's entrance into the promised land and the amazing conquest that followed. It was the LORD who gave the children of Israel victory over their enemies.
Job is perhaps the earliest book that was written (around 2000 BC??). Behemoth (Job 40) and Leviathan (Job 41) can reasonably be understood as referring to certain species of massive dinosaurs living on earth at that time--Behemoth lived on or near land and the Leviathan lived in the sea. This contradicts evolutionary theory which says that the dinosaurs became extinct millions of years before man came upon the scene. The book of Job is about a godly man who was severely tested by the Lord in order to demonstrate something to Satan. It has much to teach us as to why God sometimes allows the righteous to suffer.
Leviticus instructs the Israelites concerning true worship. There is much that Christians can learn about worship from this book also. The key word in the book of Leviticus is the word "HOLY," which is found over eighty times in this book. The God we worship is HOLY, and thus there must be an atmosphere that is appropriate. The HOLY ONE demands our reverence, our respect. May we stand in awe of Him. Forty-five times in Leviticus we find the expression "I AM THE LORD." Our worship is to be God-centered. How inappropriate it would be to come to God in a flippant or casual way, or in any way to make light of WHO HE IS! We must never detract from the DIGNITY of the occasion, as God’s people worship the HOLY ONE.
Deuteronomy means "second law." Moses, not long before his death, delivered the law a second time to the younger generation that was about to enter the land (the older generation died in the wilderness, except for Joshua and Caleb). These discourses are rich in devotional content. They stress love for God as demonstrated by obedience to His Word. The greatest commandment is found in 6:5. Christ quoted from this book three times during his temptation in the wilderness (Matthew 4).
The six books listed on top (Judges through 2 Kings) all serve to advance the historic flow. They cover the period of history from the time of the judges all the way to the Babylonian Captivity. The books on the bottom (Ruth through Chronicles) do not advance the historic flow, but they are positioned in their correct historical sequence (Psalms belongs with David; Proverbs belongs with Solomon, etc.).
Judges relates the sad history of the period of the judges when "every man did that which was right in his own eyes" (Judges 21:25). The period of the judges lasted over 300 years.
1 Samuel presents the godly Samuel and the ungodly Saul. Saul became Israel's first king. The people wanted a king like all the other nations, and God allowed them to have what they wanted, even though Saul proved to be a very poor king. David is also prominent in this book, mostly as the hero who defeated Goliath and then as the fugitive being pursued by King Saul.
2 Samuel covers the reign of King David, and includes not only his commendable acts as Israel's greatest king, but also his failings and sins which included his adultery with Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11:1-5), his murderous scheme to get rid of her husband (2 Samuel 11:6-27), and his numbering of the people (2 Samuel 24:1-9).
Both books of Kings cover the period of history from Solomon to the Babylonian Captivity. These two books cover approximately 400 years of history.
1 Kings begins with the reign of King Solomon (first 11 chapters). Solomon was the last king of the united monarchy. His unrivaled wisdom and the glories of His kingdom are described (chapters 3-10), as well as his spiritual decline (1 Kings 11). It was Solomon who built the glorious temple in Jerusalem (chapters 5-8). After Solomon's death the kingdom is divided into two parts (1 Kings 12), the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah. The prominent prophet in 1 Kings is Elijah.
2 Kings continues the history of the divided monarchy up to the time of the Babylonian captivity. In 2 Kings we learn about the decline and fall of the northern kingdom of Israel under Assyria (chapter 17) and the decline and fall of the southern kingdom of Judah under Babylon (chapters 24-25). The prominent prophet in 2 Kings is Elisha.
Ruth records fascinating events which took place toward the latter part of the period of the judges. Ruth and her husband are mentioned in the genealogy of Christ (Matthew 1:5).
The Psalms, which together form the Hebrew song book, are connected with King David since he wrote so many of them. These songs are very personal and precious and do wonders for the heart as the believer contemplates the greatness of God and His mercy.
Proverbs (practical wisdom presented in terse statements), Ecclesiastes (man vainly trying to find satisfaction "under the sun," apart from God), and Song of Solomon (a love song) were all penned by Solomon, David's Son.
1 Chronicles deals mainly with David; 2 Chronicles covers the same time span as the two books of Kings--from Solomon to the Exile (the Babylonian Captivity).
Ezra and Nehemiah, along with the nine books already discussed (Genesis through 2 Kings) all serve to advance the historic flow. The events of the book of Esther take place during the time covered by the book of Ezra, in the kingdom of Persia.
Ezra takes place after the 70 year captivity. Ezra is actually two books in one. The first book (chapters 1-6) is about Zerubbabel the governor and Joshua the high priest as a small remnant of Jews returned to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple. The second book (chapters 7-10) is about Ezra the scribe. In between these two books is a time gap of about 58 years. The events of Esther took place in this time gap.
Nehemiah concerns the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem. This is the last historic book of the Old Testament. The prophetic book which corresponds to this period of history is Malachi.
Esther takes place in Persia. In this book God's Name is not mentioned at all, but God's providential hand is everywhere seen.
The following explains in more detail how these three books fit together:
THREE BOOKS AND FOUR TRUE BIBLICAL ACCOUNTS!
The book of Ezra is a very interesting book. It is actually two books in one. We find the first book in the first six chapters and we find the second book in the last four chapters. In between chapters 6 and 7 there is a time gap of about 58 years.
BOOK NUMBER 1
THE ACCOUNT OF ZERUBBABEL
Ezra Chapters 1-6
IN BETWEEN CHAPTERS 6 AND 7 WE FIND:
A Gap of about 58 years! During this time all of the events in the book of Esther took place!
BOOK NUMBER 2
THE ACCOUNT OF EZRA
Ezra Chapters 7-10
AFTER EZRA CHAPTER 10 all of the events in the book of Nehemiah took place! So although we have three books (Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther) we actually have four true accounts:
1) THE ACCOUNT OF ZERUBBABEL (Ezra chapters 1-6)
2) THE ACCOUNT OF ESTHER (the book of Esther)
3) THE ACCOUNT OF EZRA (Ezra chapters 7-10)
4) THE ACCOUNT OF NEHEMIAH (the book of Nehemiah)
Up to this point we have discussed all of the books of the Old Testament except for the prophetic books (the minor and major prophets). In order to understand how these books fit into the history of Israel, we need to review the earlier history of Israel. The key dates to remember are these:
Abraham: Approximately 2000 B.C.
Moses: Approximately 1500 B.C.
David: Approximately 1000 B.C.
The first three kings of Israel (Saul, David and Solomon) ruled over the entire nation. The kingdom was united at this time, although Absalom, David's son, revolted against his father and tried unsuccessfully to steal the kingdom from him. After Solomon's death, the kingdom was divided in two. Solomon's son, Rehoboam, was the king of the southern kingdom which consisted of two tribes, Judah and Benjamin. The southern kingdom became known as the kingdom of Judah (the tribe of Judah was much larger than the tribe of Benjamin). Jeroboam became the king of the northern kingdom which consisted of ten tribes, with Ephraim being the largest. This became known as the kingdom of Israel. Since Ephraim was the largest tribe, the kingdom of Israel was sometimes simply referred to as "Ephraim" (we find this in the book of Hosea and elsewhere--see Isaiah 11:13).
The kings of the northern kingdom of Israel were without exception bad kings. Of each one it is said, "he did evil in the sight of the LORD." Jeroboam, the first king, began a pattern of wicked idolatry that was followed by every subsequent king. Thus the northern kingdom was on a collision course with the judgment of God. This collision took place in 722 BC when the Assyrians conquered the northern kingdom and its capital Samaria, and carried away many of the people as captives.
In the southern kingdom of Judah there were some good kings (such as Asa, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah and Josiah) and some wicked kings (such as Ahaz and Manasseh). The kingdom of Judah lasted longer than its northern neighbor, but in the end, it followed the same course of sin and idolatry resulting in God's judgment at the hands of the Babylonians. Although the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem in three different stages, the key date is 586 B.C. when the city and temple were destroyed. The following chart summarizes these key events in the history of Israel:
The prophets books are often described as MINOR or MAJOR. This does not mean that the major prophets are more important than the minor prophets. Each prophet spoke and wrote the Word of the LORD and their message was vitally important to their original audience and is also vitally important to us today. MINOR and MAJOR merely refer to the size of the books. The major prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel) are lengthy books containing many chapters each; the minor prophets are very short books with few chapters (Obadiah contains only one chapter). The minor prophets are the twelve books beginning with Hosea and ending with Malachi, the last book in the Old Testament. The Lord Jesus referred to all of the prophetic books simply as "the prophets" (Luke 24:44 and compare verse 27).
A more helpful way to categorize the prophetic books is to list them according to their relationship to the Babylonian captivity. Those books which were written before the Babylonian captivity are called the pre-exilic books; the ones written during the captivity are called the exilic books; the ones written after the captivity are referred to as the post-exilic books. Consider the following:
Notice that Jeremiah (who also wrote Lamentations) warned the people of the coming Babylonian judgment, but he also gave God's message to the people during the exile (during the captivity).
The pre-exilic prophets were Obadiah (deals with the Edomites [descendants of Esau] and their doom), Joel (emphasizes "the day of the Lord"), Jonah (God's messenger to the wicked Assyrians), Amos (message for the northern kingdom of Israel), Hosea (points out the unfaithfulness of Israel), Isaiah (message to the southern kingdom of Judah), Micah (contemporary of Isaiah whose message was also for Judah), Nahum (judgment upon Assyria), Zephaniah (message to Judah), Habakkuk (explains the Babylonian invasion which was soon to take place).
Daniel and Ezekiel were the two prophets who ministered DURING the captivity.
Haggai and Zechariah encouraged the small remnant who returned to rebuild the temple (this corresponds to Ezra chapters 1-6). Malachi was the last word from God prior to the 400 silent years. The nation at this time was in a serious backslidden condition.
Return to Historical Account
Jesus 0-33 AD
Jesus is born claims to be Messiah, Son of God and is crucified by Roman solders after he is rejected by the High Priest for his claims of Messiahship.
Titus destroys Jerusalem 70 AD
The Roman general Titus destroys the city of Jerusalem and his legion burn the Temple. The gold from the Temple melts and each stone is thrown down as the solders search for melted gold. Jews are exiled throughout the Roman empire.
Bar Kochva rebellion 135 AD
In 135 AD, the Romans, under Hadrian, kill an estimated 580,000 Jews to suppress the Bar Kochva uprising. The Romans ran a plow over Jerusalem to completely destroy the Holy City. The Romans ban the Jews from living in Jerusalem.
Rome becomes Byzantium
Christianity spreads within the Roman empire and the Empire coverts to Christianity as the State religion under Constantine. An Eastern capital is established in Byzantium and the Capital city is Constantinople after the emperor. The descendents of Israel are dispersed throughout the world. To escape persecution many flee to Arabia and Persia.
Rise of Islam 632-1918
In the deserts of Arabia Mohammed Ibn Abdallah claims to be prophet a God. Living in Mecca he proclaimed his identity to the inhabitants who rejected at first and latter tried to kill him.
He fled to Yathrub latter known as Medina where he was welcomed by the Arab tribes as a prophet. The city founded by 3 Jewish tribes who rejected him as a prophet. From 622 to 630 the Jewish tribes of Medina were eliminated.
After Mohammed’s death in 638 AD his followers conquer the land of Palestine from the Byzantine rulers.
The Dome of the Rock was built over the site of the Jewish Temple as a sign of Islam being the final and true religion. Also Mohammed claimed to ascend to Heaven from the top of Mt. Moriah.
Muslim armies conquer North Africa, and enter Europe from southern Spain. The Muslim armies advance in Europe is stopped at the battle of Tours in 732 AD by Charles le Martin (The Hammer), the grand father of Charlemagne. The last Muslim strongholds are defeated in Europe by 1492 AD.
As Europe is converted to Christianity there is a movement to rescue the Holy land from the Muslim invaders.
The crusaders of Europe conquer Jerusalem from their Arab Muslim rulers. The Crusader rule over Jerusalem is short lived as the Muslim again conquer the land.
As the Mongols expand in Asia the Turks are pushed westward toward the Middle East. Eventually the Ottoman succeed Arab rule in the Middle East. The Ottoman’s conquer Constantinople and rename the city Istanbul.
The declining Ottoman Empire allies itself with Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and is defeated by the US and its allies.
A movement founded by Theodore Herzel with a desire of founding a Jewish state in Palestine, and the return of the Jewish people to the land. The first Zionist congress was held in 1897 in Bezl Switzerland. Growing anti-Semitism in Europe led many Jews to start emigrating to Palestine in the 1850’s.
At first Britain offered 6000 square miles of uninhabited land in Uganda. But the Zionist held out for Palestine.
November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild,
I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet." His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours sincerely, Arthur James Balfour
With nationalistic and territorial pressures rising in the 1900’s Germany allied itself with the Ottoman empire. These pressures exploded into World War I.
Britain in the need of financial support turns to Sir Edmond Rothschild who helps support the British war effort. In return the Balfour Declaration is made.
The Ottoman empire loses the war along with Germany. The Turkish empire is broken up with the allies taking over control of Ottoman territory. Britain takes over administration of Palestine via a UN Mandate in 1923.
Britain carves up the territories into Arab and Turkish nations. But the Palestine issue remains unresolved.
Britain does not follow thru on Balfour promise in 1917 to Sir Edmund Rothschild.
During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews are persecuted by Hitler. Many move to Palestine. The Holocaust - the Nazi's genocide of 6 million Jews - increases international sympathy for the Zionist quest to re-establish a Jewish homeland.
Partition of Palestine
The UN Mandated the partition of Palestine into a Jewish and Arab States.
The Arab nations resisted the creation of any Jewish state in Palestine. They declared there would be war on the day of its creation.
1948 (May 14) : On May 14, 1948, the Jews declare independence for Israel. This is the first time in 2900 years that Israel is both independent and united. (Israel became a divided country about 2900 years ago, and lost its independence about 2600 years ago).
1948 (May 15) : Within hours of Israel's declaration of independence, the surrounding Arab countries launch an invasion of Israel.
1949 : Israel prevails in the Arab-Israeli war of 1948-9. Israeli forces recapture more of the ancient Jewish homeland, expanding the size of Israel by about 50 percent.
After mounting tensions in the area, Gamel Abdel Nasser seized the Suez Canal from European ownership Israel then makes a preemptive strike.
In October of 1956 Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula to destroy Arab military bases there. In 5 days the Israeli army captured Gaza, Rafah, Al-Arish taking thousands of prisoners and occupying the area east of the Suez Canal. In December after a joint Anglo-French intervention, a United Nations Emergency Force was stationed in the area..
1967 Six day war
Arab and Israeli forces clashed for the third time June 5-10, 1967 in what is known as the 6 day war.
In early 1967 Syrian bombardments of Israeli villages had been intensified. When the Israeli Air Force shot down six Syrian MiG planes in reprisal, Nasser mobilized his forces near the Sinai border. During this war Israel eliminated the Egyptian air force and established air superiority. The war cost the Arabs the Old City of Jerusalem, the Sinai and the Gaza Strip, the Jordanian territory west of the Jordan River known as the West Bank and the Golan Heights, on the Israeli-Syrian border.
1973 Yom Kippur War
On October 6th, during the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur Israel was attacked by the Egypt across the Suez Canal and by Syria on the Golan heights.
Israel pushed its way into Syrian territory and encircled the Egyptian Third Army by crossing the Suez Canal and establishing forces on the west bank.
Israel signed cease fire agreements with Egypt on Jan. 18th, 1974 and with Syria on May 31st, 1974.
1982 Lebanon War
Less then six weeks after Israel’s withdrawal form the Sinai. Israel invaded Lebanon and encircled Beirut in effort to pursue PLO fighters operating out of the country. Israel withdrew after a the PLO evacuated the city under a multinational force.
Taken from truthnet.org
CURRENT TIME LINE
PROPHECY: The more modern “western world” societies will have become corrupted by the quest for wealth and power while morality as a whole will have declined into a perilous state of decadence (Mark 7:20-22; 2 Corinthians 12:20-21; 1 Timothy 1:3-11; 2 Timothy 3:1-5).
PROPHECY: Many new spiritual teachings and corrupted doctrines will be inspired and taught by false prophets and teachers. These will have surfaced to replace the traditional beliefs of Christianity and Judaisim (Matthew 24:24; Mark 13:22; Romans 16:17-18; 1 Timothy 4:1-2; 2 Timothy 4:3-4; 2 Peter 2:1; 2 Peter 3:16; 2 Thessalonians 2:9-10; Revelation 19:20).
PROPHECY: Christians will begin to fall under severe persecution worldwide, many suffering death for their faith and system of beliefs (Matthew 10:21-23; Matthew 24:9-10; Luke 21:12,13,16-17; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 13:9-10; Revelation 20:4).
PROPHECY: Great difficulties and world suffering will continue to increase at staggering levels (a prelude to the more severe problems that will occur during the “Tribulation Period”). Turmoil and strife will have become commomplace in the world. (Matthew 24:6-8,21, Luke 21:9-11)
PROPHECY: Anti-semetism (hatred toward the Jewish people) will have grown rampant not only in the Middle East but in many countries throughout the world (Psalm 83:2-5).
PROPHECY: World leaders of great influence and the wealthiest of nations that had supported Israel in the past, will have become corrupted and begin suffering the consequences thereof (Genesis 12:3; Revelation 17:15-16).
“Israel was holiness unto the LORD, and the firstfruits of his increase: all that devour him shall offend; evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD.” (Jeremiah 2:3 NKJ)
PROPHECY: Leading nations will begin to suffer under the plagued conditions of the world and once stable world economies will begin to collapse (Revelation 18:2-11).
PROPHECY: The enemies of Israel will continue to suffer whenever they take action against its people or oppose the nation (Isaiah 17:1, 13-14; Isaiah 41:11-12; Jeremiah 2:3; Ezekiel 30:3-9).
““So you also, when you see these things happening, know that the kingdom of God is near. Assuredly, I say to you, this generation will by no means pass away till all things take place.”