Book of Kells - is an ancient manuscript—a book written out by hand long before printing was invented. It contains the words of the four Gospels of the Bible and is decorated with many beautiful pictures called illuminations
Byzantine Empire - The most brilliant of medieval civilizations was the Eastern RomanEmpire. The RomanEmpirewas divided inAD395 into two parts. The Western half, ruled from Rome, fell to the tribal Germanic peoples known as barbarians in the 5th century. The Eastern half, known as theByzantineEmpire, lasted for more than 1,000 years.
Canon law - The body oflaws for the government of certain churches is calledcanonlaw. The Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican Communion churches, as well as independent churches of Eastern Christianity, are all governed in whole or in part bycanonlaw
Code of Justinian - The most famous of all the emperors of theByzantine, or Eastern Roman, Empire wasJustinianthe Great. He is known today chiefly for his reform and codification oflaw.
Crusades - From 1096 until the end of theMiddle Ages, Christian warriors from Europe undertook a series of military campaigns, orCrusades, designed to take back from the Muslims control of the Holy Land (in the region ofPalestine).
Cyrillic alphabet - The Cyrillic Alphabet was named for Cyril a Greek monk who, with Methodius, brought written language to Christian converts in the mid-9th century (c.860) in what is now Russia. The Cyrillic alphabet is closely based on the Greek alphabet, with about a dozen additional letters invented to represent Slavic sounds not found in Greek.
Divine right - the doctrine that the right of rule derives directly from God, not from the consent of the people.
Excommunication - to sentence (a member of the Church) to exclusion from the communion of believers and from the privileges and public prayers of the Church
Feudalism - the political, military, and social system in the Middle Ages, based on the holding of lands in fief or fee and on the resulting relations between lord and vassal.
Fief - atenureoflandsubjecttofeudalobligations.
Guild - any of various medieval associations, as of merchants or artisans, organized to maintain standards and to protect the interests of its members, and that sometimes constituted a local governing body.
Hanseatic League - a medieval league of towns of northern Germany and adjacent countries for the promotion and protection of commerce.
Heresy - the willful and persistent rejection of any article of faith by a baptized member of the church.
Holy Land – Palestine (Israel)
Humanism - a variety of ethical theory and practice that emphasizes reason, scientific inquiry, and human fulfillment in the natural world and often rejects the importance of belief in God.
Knight - a man, usually of noble birth, who after an apprenticeship as page and squire was raised to honorable military rank and bound to chivalrous conduct.
Magna Carta - The document was a series of written promises between the king and his subjects that he, the king, would govern England and deal with its people according to the customs of feudal law. Magna Carta was an attempt by the barons to stop a king - in this case John - abusing his power with the people of England suffering.
Manorialism - Lords and peasants worked together to support one another. The wealth of the lords came by the labors of the peasants who worked their lands. In return, the lords protected the peasants, offered them shelter, and insured that they were fed.
Medieval - of, pertaining to, characteristic of, or in the style of the Middle Ages
Reformation - the religious movement in the 16th century that had for its object the reform of the Roman Catholic Church, and that led to the establishment of the Protestant churches
Renaissance - the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world.
Salt-gold trade - The gold-salt trade was when people north of the Sahara trade salt for gold with the people south of the Sahara. Ghana just happened to be in the middle and charged gold for passing through and became very rich
Samurai - The Japanese feudal military aristocracy. A professional warrior belonging to this class.
Serf - A member of the lowest feudal class, attached to the land owned by a lord and required to perform labor in return for certain legal or customary rights.
Shogan - the title applied to the chief military commanders from about the 8th century a.d. to the end of the 12th century, then applied to the hereditary officials who governed Japan, with the emperor as nominal ruler, until 1868
Columbus - Italian navigator in Spanish service: traditionally considered the discoverer of America 1492.
Da Vinci - 1452–1519, Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, mathematician, and scientist.
Dante - is considered to be one of the most important, inspired writers of the Middle Ages. His main work, theCommediaor theDivine Comedyis a verse work which combines both allegory and the real, in the hopes of promoting a true spiritual path for readers toward redemption and ascension into heave
Descartes - Frenchphilosopherandmathematician.
Galileo - Italianphysicistandastronomer.
Henry Hudson - Englishnavigatorandexplorer.
Joan of Arc - French national heroine and martyr who raised the siege of Orleans; Saint known as "The Maid of Orleans." Emerged from obscurity on 1429 to save France. She believed that she had received a revelation from God commanding her to find dauphin, the heir to the French throne, and see that he was crowned king. Then she was to help him drive the English out of France. After the dauphin was crowned as Charles the VII, Joan dictated a letter to the English, calling on them to withdraw. Captured by Burgundian allies of the English and burned at the stake.
Johann Gutenberg - German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press
John Cabot - Italian navigator in the service of England: discoverer of North American mainland 1497.
Keppler - The Renaissance astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler is best known for his discovery that the orbits in which the Earth and the other planets of the solar system travel around the sun are elliptical, or oval, in shape.
Locke - One of the pioneers in modern thinking was the English philosopher JohnLocke. He made great contributions in studies of politics, government, and psychology.
Machiavelli - Florentine statesman and political philosopher; secretary to the war council of the Florentine republic founder of political ethics
Magellan - Portuguese navigator: discoverer of the Straits of Magellan 1520 and the Philippines 1521.
Mansa Musa - Mansa Musa, king of the Mali empire in West Africa, is known mostly for his fabulous pilgrimage to Mecca and for his promotion of unity and prosperity within Mali.
Martin Luther - German theologian and author: leader, in Germany, of the Protestant Reformation.