What are 2 reasons why Lincoln was hesitant to emancipate the slaves? 1. He didn’t think he had the constitutional power; 2. He worried about the effects of * emancipation = * loss of support for the war.
Lincoln Issues the Proclamation How did each of the following groups/people feel about emancipation?
Democratic Party – Against emancipation; feared freed slaves would take their jobs at lower wages
Abolitionists- For emancipation; argued that the war was pointless if it didn’t win freedom for African Americans
Border States- Against emancipation
Secretary of War Edwin Stanton- For Emancipation; Slave labor was helping the Confederacy in the War; wanted Lincoln to free slaves in rebellious states so they could enlist in Union Army
The Emancipation Proclamation was a military order that freed slaves only in areas controlled by the Confederacy. It had little immediate effect because the federal government could not enforceit in areas where it actually applied. The words of the document were powerful but it was more symbolicthan real. It defined what the Union was fighting against, and discouraged Britainfrom aiding the Confederacy. The Proclamation was issued on September 22, 1862and went into effect on January 1, 1863.
Reaction to the Proclamation How did African Americans and Abolitionist react to the proclamation? Church worshippers prayed, sang, and gave thanks. Abolitionists rejoiced.
Where slavery remained, what was the reaction of many enslaved Africans? Encouraged enslaved Africans to escape when Union Troops came near, (contraband = escaped slaves)
African Americans Participate in the War
What made the 54th Massachusetts Infantry famous? Unit of mostly free African Americans; led heroic charge on So. Carolina’s Fort Wagner; ½ of the Unit killed, wounded, or captured.
About 180,000 African Americans served with the Union army. They received $10.00 a month while white soldiers got $13.00 per month.
In what ways were Civil War battlefields worse for African American soldiers? If captured, they might be killed or sold back into slavery
Who was the leader of the Peace Democrats and what was their position regarding the war? Representative Clement L Vallandigham of Ohio spoke out against the war, (enemies called them “Copperheads”)- Sympathized w/ the South and opposed abolition.
Who were the copperheads and what was their position regarding the war? “Peace Democrats” Midwesterners who sympathized w/ the South & opposed abolition
How did Lincoln silence the copperheads? Why? He suspended the right of habeas corpus (protection against unlawful imprisonment)- some were imprisoned. Lincoln saw them as a threat to the war effort.
Why did people call the Civil War a “rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight?” Men could buy their way out of the draft for $300 – too much for a laborer to pay.
How did the issue of the draft impact the election of 1864? Tensions! (Over draft & African American strike breakers on New York docks)—Gen. McClellan ran against Lincoln and lost.
What style of fighting was used in the Civil War that caused a large amount of casualties? Ancient battlefield formation – long rows of soldiers firing on each other.
What difficulties did doctors and nurses face in terms of treating patients? No medicines for infections; no painkillers
What diseases resulted in the death of many Civil War soldiers? (Bacteria via food/ water w/ feces); typhoid, pneumonia, & tuberculosis.
Prisoners of War What were the conditions like for prisoners of war? *Overcrowded *Little shelter, food, or clothes *starvation & disease
Life as a Civilian What role did civilian women and children play in the war? Worked in factories & on farms; did daily chores that had been done by men
Describe why Clara Barton is famous. S he organized collection of medicines and supplies for battlefields; she soothed wounded, assisted doctors in midst of battle,
Read the Biography of Abraham Lincoln on p. 535 and complete the 5 W’s below.
WHO? 16th President/ US WHEN? 1809 - 1865 WHERE? Grew up in KY & IL– Settled in Springfield, Washington DC WHAT? Famous debates with Douglas; Led nation through Civil War. WHY? Opposed expansion of slavery; *Emancipation Proclamation; * Gettysburg Address