Calhoun—Jackson’s vice-president—argued for BOTH! (p. 338)
Webster vs. Hayne
North vs. South
Union vs. States’ Rights
Calhounresigned as VP—
won Senate seat for South Carolina
South Carolina passed the NULLIFICATION ACT – said it WOULD NOT PAY the “illegal” tariffs of 1828 & 1832
South Carolina said it would secede if federal govt intervened
Compromise bill by Henry Clay (the Great Compromiser!)lowered tariffs, but then Jackson also passed FORCE BILL—allowing president to use the militaryto enforce federal laws
South Carolina accepted new, lower tariff, but voted to nullify the FORCE ACT.
LESSON: Federal gov’t would not allow a state to go its own way without a fight!
The conflict helped enforce the idea ofsecessionwhich ultimately led to theCivil War.
As the Unionist, James Petigru, wrote at the time, "Nullification has done its work. It has prepared the minds of men for a separation of the states - and when the question is moved again it will be distinctly union or disunion."
In 1860, South Carolina was the first state to secede.
Indian Removal Act: allowed the federal gov’t to pay Native Americans to move west so that American settlers could move onto and settle the fertile farmlands of the Southeast frontier where GOLD had been found.
The Cherokee Nation refused to give up its land.
In the 1790s, the federal gov’t had recognized the Cherokee in the state of Georgia as a separate nation with its own laws, but the state of Georgia refused to honor this
The Cherokee sued the state of Georgia and the case went to the Supreme Court!
In Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall sided with the Cherokee and said that Georgia had no right to the Cherokee land (p. 627)
President Jackson, sided with Georgia and ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling saying, “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!”
Trail of Tears: In the winter of 1837-38, Gen. Winfield Scott forced 16,000 Cherokee to march almost 1,000 miles from Georgia to the newly designated “Indian Territory” (present-day Oklahoma). One-fourth died from exposure and starvation, so the Cherokee referred to it as the Trail Where They Cried, today it is known as the Trail of Tears.
War Against the Bank – Bank War –
Some liked the Bank of the U.S. because they believed it helped the nation’s economy by providing stability so they passed a bill to renew the bank’s charter for another 20 years.
The bill was meant to hurt Jackson politically in the Election of 1832.
But Jackson hated the bank because, as a common man, he felt it benefited only the powerful and wealthy. He also said the bill was unconstitutional.
So…Jackson vetoed the bill, killing the national bank, once and for all.
Jackson’s Farewell Address -- At the end of his second term, Jackson delivered a memorable farewell address, noteworthy because of its prescience (foretelling of future events)…Jackson warned against sectarian (sectional) divisions especially those existing between the North and the South.