Election of 1824 1816-1824: Era of Good Feelings

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  1. Election of 1824

1816-1824: Era of Good Feelings, only one political party, so…

  1. 4 candidates…ALL same party…Democratic-Republicans and favorite sons

    1. Andrew JacksonWest, War of 1812 hero

    2. Henry ClayWest, Speaker of the House

    3. WC –really too sick to campaign or be a factor

    4. John Quincy Adams – Massachusetts, son of John Adams, supported by merchants of Northeast

  1. NO candidate received a majority (more than half) of electoral votes. Jackson had a plurality (the most votes--largest single share), but no one had a majority, so...

  1. House of Representatives would decide=> 12th Amendment

  1. CORRUPT BARGAIN” => Adams wins

    1. Clay makes a deal with Adams—Clay uses his influence as Speaker of the House to defeat Jackson, so Adams wins!

    2. Adams makes Clay Secretary of State

    3. Jackson’s supporters say JQA stole the election with the “corrupt bargain”…

(shadow over JQA’s presidency)

  1. John Quincy Adams’ presidency

    1. policies of expanding the federal gov’t ran against popular opinion

      1. Stronger navy

      2. Gov’t sponsored scientific expeditions

      3. Direct federal involvement in economic growth

    2. John Calhoun (South Carolina) is Adams’ vice-president

  1. Election of 1828 Democratic-Republicans divide into 2 parties

  1. Democratic-Republicans (Democrats) …. Andrew Jackson

    1. States’ rights

    2. Mistrusted federal gov’t

    3. Individualists—frontiersmen, immigrants, laborers

  1. National-Republicans …. John Quincy Adams

    1. Strong federal/central gov’t

    2. Federal economic measures

      1. Road building

      2. Bank of the United States

      3. Merchants, farmers

  1. VICIOUS CAMPAIGN – each side attacked the other => MUDSLINGING


    1. Campaign slogans

    2. Campaign rallies

    3. Campaign buttons

    4. Campaign events barbeques, etc.

  1. Jackson won with votes from the FRONTIER WEST and SOUTH


    2. CALHOUN – VP for Adams – favored states’ rights and switched to be Jackson’s VP!

    3. AJ won in a LANDSLIDE!


  1. Jackson: common man, American success story—went from:

poor farm boy => war hero => President

  1. JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACYSUFFRAGE or the right to vote increased in common man spirit of equality

    1. State constitutions were changed to remove voting requirements such as land ownership and tax payments…so sharecroppers and factory workers were included in the political process for the first time

      1. 1824: 37% of white men allowed to vote

1840: 80% of white men allowed to vote

      1. Women, African-Americans, Native Americans still not allowed to vote—few rights at all

    1. Spoils system – Jackson replaced gov’t workers with his supporters.

      1. To the victors belongs the spoils!”

      2. spoils: benefits of victory

  1. TARIFF DEBATE => TARIFF CRISIS tested the national gov’t powers

Tariff: fee paid by merchants who imported goods

  1. 1828 – Congress passed a very HIGH tariff on European goods so that American consumers would be more likely to buy American goods

    1. Manufacturers in the Northeast => happy

    2. Southerners => hated it => “Tariff of Abominations!”

SECTIONALISM getting stronger—loyalty to their region—becomes more intense as differences arise over national policies.

  1. NULLIFICATION CRISISStates vs. Federal Gov’t

    1. Some Southerners wanted to SECEDEbreak away

    2. Others believed states should be able to NULLIFY—or cancel—a federal law it considered unconstitutional

    3. Calhoun—Jackson’s vice-president—argued for BOTH! (p. 338)

    4. Webster-Hayne Debate

      1. Webster vs. Hayne

      2. North vs. South

      3. Union vs. States’ Rights

    1. Calhoun resigned as VP

      1. won Senate seat for South Carolina

    2. South Carolina passed the NULLIFICATION ACT – said it WOULD NOT PAY the “illegal” tariffs of 1828 & 1832

      1. South Carolina said it would secede if federal govt intervened

    3. Compromise bill by Henry Clay (the Great Compromiser!) lowered tariffs, but then Jackson also passed FORCE BILL—allowing president to use the military to enforce federal laws

    4. South Carolina accepted new, lower tariff, but voted to nullify the FORCE ACT.

    5. LESSON: Federal gov’t would not allow a state to go its own way without a fight!

    6. The conflict helped enforce the idea of secession which ultimately led to the Civil War.

      1. As the Unionist, James Petigru, wrote at the time, "Nullification has done its work. It has prepared the minds of men for a separation of the states - and when the question is moved again it will be distinctly union or disunion."

      2. In 1860, South Carolina was the first state to secede.

  1. Indian Removal Act => Worcester v. Georgia => Trail of Tears

  1. Indian Removal Act: allowed the federal gov’t to pay Native Americans to move west so that American settlers could move onto and settle the fertile farmlands of the Southeast frontier where GOLD had been found.

  2. The Cherokee Nation refused to give up its land.

    1. In the 1790s, the federal gov’t had recognized the Cherokee in the state of Georgia as a separate nation with its own laws, but the state of Georgia refused to honor this

    2. The Cherokee sued the state of Georgia and the case went to the Supreme Court!

      1. In Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall sided with the Cherokee and said that Georgia had no right to the Cherokee land (p. 627)

      2. President Jackson, sided with Georgia and ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling saying, “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!”

  1. Trail of Tears: In the winter of 1837-38, Gen. Winfield Scott forced 16,000 Cherokee to march almost 1,000 miles from Georgia to the newly designated “Indian Territory” (present-day Oklahoma). One-fourth died from exposure and starvation, so the Cherokee referred to it as the Trail Where They Cried, today it is known as the Trail of Tears.

  1. War Against the Bank – Bank War –

    1. Some liked the Bank of the U.S. because they believed it helped the nation’s economy by providing stability so they passed a bill to renew the bank’s charter for another 20 years.

      1. The bill was meant to hurt Jackson politically in the Election of 1832.

    2. But Jackson hated the bank because, as a common man, he felt it benefited only the powerful and wealthy. He also said the bill was unconstitutional.

      1. So…Jackson vetoed the bill, killing the national bank, once and for all.

  1. Jackson’s Farewell Address -- At the end of his second term, Jackson delivered a memorable farewell address, noteworthy because of its prescience (foretelling of future events)…Jackson warned against sectarian (sectional) divisions especially those existing between the North and the South.

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