Elacc3RI3: Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect elacc3RI8

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Cause and Effect Unit

Title: Cause and Effect

Grade: 3

Content Area: Language Arts

ELACC3RI3: Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

ELACC3RI8: Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).
Unit length: 2 weeks (10 days)
Day One

Time: 55 Minutes

Objectives: The student will identify the logical connection to material in a text through sequence and cause and effect.

Pre-Assessment: Anchor Chart – Cause and Effect

Through teacher discussion, the students will complete the chart by providing either cause or effect sentences. The students’ participation as well as base knowledge of content will serve as the assessment results.

  • Cause and Effect

    Cause: Why something happens

    Effect: What happens

    Cause Effect

    • Lilly didn’t study her spelling words. * She failed her spelling test.

    • * Mark got in trouble at school.

    • Jason taught his friend to play soccer. *

    • (Students create own cause and effect)

Activity: Read Aloud – Potato: A Tale from the Great Depression by Katie Lied

As a class, the students will complete a Cause and Effect flow chart from the book using SmartBoard Technology.

Day Two

Time: 55 minutes

Objectives: The student will identify a logical sequence of events by identifying the cause and effect of a story.

Activity: Read Aloud –Titanicat by Marty Crisp

  • Students come to the reading circle with a piece of paper and pencil.

  • As we read, try to think of any cause and effect sentences from the book and write them down.

  • Share cause and effect sentences.

  • Discuss cause and effect from the book.

Worksheet: Flashlight Cause and Effect

Day Three

Time: 55 Minutes

Objectives: The students will identify the cause and effect of a historical event and place the causes and effects in chronological order.

Activity: Read Aloud – The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles

  • Students come to the reading circle to hear The Story of Ruby Bridges.

  • After reading the book, the students will be given a sheet of paper containing a cause or effect.

  • The students will play “I have, who has” with their cause and effect sheet to find their matching sheet.

  • The students, with their cause and effect sentences, will be lined up in a chronological sequence.


  1. Because the white parents didn’t like black people

  2. They did a boycott against the schools.

  3. Ruby’s parents prayed for her

  4. Because they were worried.

  5. Ruby’s family moved to New Orleans

  6. Because her father lost his job.

  7. A judge says segregating the schools isn’t fair

  8. So Ruby gets to go to school with white children.

  9. The white people said mean things to Ruby

  10. So Ruby prayed for them.

  11. The white boys were misbehaving

  12. So the boys were sent back to school with Ruby.

  13. Because the police didn’t help Ruby

  14. The president sent Federal Marshalls to walk to school with Ruby.

  15. Ruby learned to read and write

  16. Because she went to school.

  17. Because Mrs. Henry was worried about Ruby

  18. She would ask her questions every day to check on her.

  19. Ruby forgot to pray for the people

  20. So she stopped in front of them to pray.

  21. Because Ruby was brave enough to go to school

  22. All black children were able to go.


Worksheet: Matching Cause and Effect SEE APPENDIX C

  • The teacher and students complete the first two sentences as a group.

  • The students complete the worksheet and turn it in for a formative assessment.

Day Four

Time: 55 Minutes

Objectives: The student will connect cause sentences and effect sentences with at least 80% accuracy.

Activity: Read Aloud - Train to Somewhere by Eve Bunting

  • Classroom discussion regarding cause and effect in the Train to Somewhere story.

  • Students are placed in pairs and given 10 cause and effect “Puzzle Pieces”

  • The pairs must effectively and correctly place the puzzle pieces together. SEE APPENDIX D

Worksheet: Cause and Effect (Page 129 & 130) SEE APPENDIX E

  • The students are sent back to their desks and the worksheet is projected onto the SmartBoard.

  • The story about Jim and his dad is read as a class and the effect is determined as a class.

  • The students complete the back of the worksheet on their own. (Story about Joey and Story about the Boy Scouts.)

  • Review the students’ answers.

Day Five

Time: 55 Minutes

Objective: Students will identify cause and effect during discussion of text.

Read Aloud: Brave as a Mountain Lion by Ann Herbert Scott

  • During read aloud, the teacher will stop and give students the opportunity to identify cause and effect in the story.


  • Students return to their desks for a SmartBoard presentation and activity. SEE APPENDIX F

Day Six

Time: 55 Minutes

Objective: The student will recognize signal words in regards to cause and effect and identify those words in given sentences.

Read Aloud: Ted by Tony DiTerlizzi

  • Discuss cause and effect relationships in the book.

Activity: Anchor Chart – Identifying Cause and Effect Signal Words

Completed as a class.

  • Cause and Effect Signal Words

    Words that help readers to identify cause and effect relationships

    if then because since so

    • If we keep our room clean then we can get a new puppy.

    • Because the glass of water is close to the edge of the table, it could fall.

    • Our teacher was excited because a new student joined our class.

    • We have to pack our bags since we are leaving for vacation.

    • Since the teacher gave me homework, I can not go outside.

    • I needed a ride home so I called my mom.

    • I made all A’s on my report card so my dad bought me ice cream.

Worksheet: Cause and Effect – Write the cause and effect for each sentence SEE APPENDIX G

  • Students return to desks and complete the worksheet.

  • In addition to directions on worksheet, the students must circle the signal words in each sentence.

  • Review answers as a group

Day 7

Time: 55 Minutes

Objective: The students will create a writing sample using signal words and order to create cause and effect.

Read Aloud: Lea’s Pony

  • Students will be asked to identify cause and effect relationships at certain points of the reading.

Acitivity: Create a cause and effect writing sample to later be turned into puzzle pieces.

  • The students are given a graphic organizer for writing cause and effect paragraph. SEE APPENDIX H

  • The students fully complete the graphic organizer with the title or topic of the paragraph at the top.

  • The students write their paragraph on notebook paper. Graded using rubric. SEE APPENDIX I

Day Eight

Time: 55 Minutes

Objective: The students will identify the cause and effect relationship in their own writing.

Activity: create own cause and effect puzzle with their paragraph. Share puzzle with classmates.

Post-assessment – Quiz

Teacher Work Sample

Standard 1: Contextual Factors

City Park Elementary school is a Title 1 school located in the heart of the textile town, Dalton, Georgia. The families that live in the city of Dalton can fall into any economic category from poverty to extreme wealth. The students who attend Dalton Public Schools mirror this demographic. Because the town is a textile town, a large part of the population works in manufacturing and moved to the area specifically for the jobs. At one point the job availability and decent pay was a large draw for immigrant workers. Since the economy has been struggling, the jobs have disappeared and many families left the area to search for work. For the families that remain, it is a battle to keep a job and feed their family. Many fathers or mothers, or possibly both, work third or second shift and are not home when their children come home from school. Academics is not a priority in many homes which puts more pressure on the education system to keep the students engaged and learning.

With a demographic of 82% minorities, City Park has successfully dealt with the obstacles presented and met AYP over the past several years. With around 23% of the students enrolled in an English to Speakers of Other Languages program and around 23% enrolled in an Early Intervention Program, City Park school has definitely maintained its focus on the students. With the help of the community through funding from programs such as ESPLOST (Education Special Purpose Local Option Sales Tax), the school system has made the students a priority. SmartBoard technology is in every classroom. Most classrooms have laptops and almost every school has a large supply of Ipads or Ipod touches. All of the available technology not only provides more options for resources for teachers but also for more activities for students. The state of Georgia recently adapted the national standards known as the Common Core Standards and are using those standards in conjunction with the Georgia Performance Standards until full implementation.

In Mrs. Gunter’s third grade classroom at City Park School, students are grouped according to their abilities during word study. Mrs. Gunter has developed a schedule which provides the opportunity for each group to work with her twice a week and still have the opportunity to study their spelling words on a website called Spelling City. During guided reading, Mrs. Gunter’s use of technology related reading activities also gives her the opportunity to meet with several reading groups in a short period. The inclusive classroom provides many obstacles, however through effective time management, planning, and differentiation the students are engaged. Because of the six special needs students in the classroom, special education paraprofessionals come in daily to work individually with the students during instruction time. Some days the students are pulled out of class and taken to a separate area where they are tested and worked with on an individual basis.

One surprising aspect of the classroom is the amount of parental involvement. While some parents may never make it to the school for conferences or family nights, Mrs. Gunter’s parents ask for notes to be sent home about progress and several came in for morning conferences. It is easy to spot the students who have involved parents; they have a sense of responsibility and realize there will be consequences if any of those notes sent home are negative. Behavior management does seem to be an issue in the classroom, however if the students are fully engaged then their behavior remains under control. After moving the desks around several times, we seemed to have found an arrangement that minimizes disruptions and aids in keeping the students engaged.

When planning a lesson or unit, the possibilities presented by technology must be considered. Doing so will only help meet the needs of the diverse students represented in the classroom. When assigning homework, it is important to remember that many students may not have a support system at home that fosters and environment for academic success.

Learning Goals


Format of Assessment


Learning Goal 1


Formative Assessment

Teacher-led discussion and creation of Anchor Chart, classroom activity of cause and effect flow chart.

When discussing, call on students who may need guidance. Establish expectation of all students contributing, even if prompts are needed.

Learning Goal 2

Formative Assessment

Worksheet on cause and effect, the passage will be read aloud in class and the first cause identified. The students must complete the remainder of the worksheet on their own. Review and correction will be done as a class and projected onto the SmartBoard.

The passage and questions will be read aloud by students in the inclusive classroom for the lower performing students.

Learning Goal 3

Formative assessment

Worksheet on matching cause with effect. The first two will be done as a class and the students must complete the rest on their own. The worksheet will be turned in for grading but will not be added to the gradebook.

The teacher will closely observe the students during completion and aid any students, specifically the lower performing students, who may need assistance with reading.

Learning Goal 4

Formative assessment

Read-aloud of Brave as a Mountain Lion by Ann Herbert Scott, the students will be asked to raise their hand when they hear a cause and effect moment or sentence during reading. Assessment will be judged on participation only.

Because assessment is done on participation only, the students must all contribute something to the discussion. The teacher must be vigilant of which students are apprehensive to participate and prompt those students to contribute.

Learning Goal 5

Formative assessment

The students will be asked to break a sentence into cause and effect. They will then be asked to circle the cause and effect signal words. Review of the worksheet will be done as a class and projected onto the SmartBoard.

The lower performing students will be given additional aid in reading the sentences but must rewrite and identify the signal words on their own.

Learning Objective 1

Formative assessment

The students will be provided a worksheet (front and back). We complete the front of the worksheet as a class and identify the effect for the corresponding cause. The students will be required to complete the opposite side alone. A review will be done after the worksheets are collected. No formal grade will be entered.

The passages may need to be read aloud to the lower performing students however those students must complete the questions on their own.

Learning Objective 2

Summative Assessment,

Performance assessment

The students will be provided a graphic organizer and asked to create their own cause and effect paragraph. They must use signal words in the sentences and have a minimum of 10 sentences. Grading will be done by rubric.

The lower performing students may need assistance in identifying a topic and writing complete sentences in the paragraph.

Learning Objective 3


Summative assessment

The students will be given a quiz containing several multiple choice questions as well as several where they will be asked to identify the cause or effect of the sentence.

No adaptations should be needed with the quiz.

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