Either Question 2 or Question 1 Study the following source material and then answer the questions which follow. Source A



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Answer Question 1 and either Question 2 or Question 3.

1 Study the following source material and then answer the questions which follow.

Source A From a German village newspaper report, 10 December 1935

The 'Day of National Solidarity' was held on 7 December 1935. It vividly demonstrated what a strong and decisive leadership, filled with true National Socialist spirit, has made of the German people. Previously, class differences and pride in status were most important. The leading members of the party, local authorities, the SS, men in the professions, industry and trade came together on this day. It has provided the proof that the German people really do form the National Community in which everyone gladly makes sacrifices for their fellows.

Source B Memories of life in a small German town in 1933

A teacher remembered a mother of one of his pupils who complained about the book burning. He agreed with her but also warned her not to try to tell other people, as she could get into trouble. The general feeling was that the Gestapo was everywhere and had become extremely efficient by making the most of rumours and fears. Given the atmosphere of terror, even people who were friends felt that they must betray each other in order to survive. There was the case of a doctor at a party who entertained people by imitating Hitler's way of speaking. The next morning his host reported him to Nazi headquarters.

Source C Under Hitler, there were many people who became noisy supporters of a system they did not necessarily believe in. However, popular attitudes towards the Nazis show that broad sections of the German public supported the dictatorship, often with enthusiasm and devotion, or at least with general approval. Those who supported or went along with the system acted out of agreement, not fear. They did so because they found their own expectations and beliefs reflected to some degree in the dictatorship. The extent to which enthusiasm was the result of genuine ideological belief or the product of political education and self-interest is open to debate.

Adapted from R overy, The Dictators, 2004

(a) Use Sources_A'>Sources A and B and your own knowledge.

Explain how far the views in Source B differ from those in Source A in relation to the
attitudes of German people towards the Nazi regime. (12 marks)

(b) Use Sources A, B and C and your own knowledge.

How far had the Nazi regime succeeded in creating loyal Nazi citizens by 1939?

(24 marks)

EITHER

2 (a) Explain why Hitler eliminated opposition in the Night of the Long Knives. (12 marks)

(b) 'By the end of 1934, Germany had become a totalitarian state.'

Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement. (24 marks)

OR

3 (a) Explain why the Nazis promoted membership of their youth organisations after 1933.

(12 marks)

(b) 'Nazi policies towards women achieved their aims.'

Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement. (24 marks)

END OF QUESTIONS

3

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