Eighth grade unit outlines



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SUGGESTED UNIT OUTLINES FOR SOCIAL STUDIES GLES 8th GRADE

EIGHTH GRADE – UNIT OUTLINES

In eighth grade, students develop a new, more abstract level of understanding of social studies concepts. The recommended context for developing this understanding is U.S. history and government, 1776 to 1900. Students explore the ideas, issues, and events from the framing of the Constitution up through Reconstruction and industrialization. After reviewing the founding of the United States, particularly the Constitution, students explore the development of politics, society, culture, and economy in the United States to deepen conceptual understandings in civics, geography, and economics. In particular, studying the causes and consequences of the Civil War helps them to comprehend more profoundly the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a culturally diverse democracy.


The following pages provide unit outlines to help you organize a United States history course around the required state standards focusing primarily on the 19th Century. As with the other grade levels, these suggested unit outlines are framed along two dimensions: chronological era and major developments or themes. Civics, economics, geography, and social studies skills are embedded in this framework. The unit outlines start with possible essential and guiding questions to help frame the unit. The sample guiding questions focus on the specific issues that connect with the particular era, developments, or themes. The essential questions are meant to remind us of how the themes and eras addressed in a particular unit relate to timeless issues and concepts. Please note that while the GLEs (in bold) are required, the examples are merely suggestions. Since it would be impossible to address all of the important cultures, people, and events during more than one hundred years of this nation’s history in a way that promotes in-depth understanding, these examples are meant to provide some possible contexts in which to teach these standards. They are not meant to be followed like a recipe or as a one-size-fits-all curriculum. Ultimately, it is up to teachers and administrators in each district to decide how to tailor this course and these examples to their students’ and community’s particular interests and needs. They will have to help decide which themes and developments in history students will examine deeply and which they will look at as points of comparison. By balancing depth and breadth, students will have the opportunity to gain enduring understandings that U.S. history teaches us about ourselves and the world. To help develop these enduring understandings, these unit outlines include recommended placement of several of the state’s Classroom-Based Assessment models (CBAs). To see the full requirements of the CBAs referenced below, visit OSPI’s social studies assessment web page.
Unit Outlines for Eighth Grade:

Overview


  1. US- Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution (1776-1815)

  2. US- Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (1801-1850)

  3. US- Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

  4. US- Development and Struggles in the West, Immigration, Industrialization, and Urbanization (1870-Present)

  5. US- Looking Forward

Recommended CBAs: Constitutional Issues, Checks and Balances
Overview







Required GLE

Suggested Examples

HISTORY

4.1.2

Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from 1776 to 1900:

  • Fighting for independence and framing the Constitution (1776—1815).

  • Slavery, expansion, removal, and reform (1801—1850).

  • Civil War and Reconstruction (1850—1877).

  • Development and struggles in the West, industrialization, immigration, and urbanization (1870—1900).

  • Explains how the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 help to define early U.S. history as a time of struggle for independence.

  • Explains how the Monroe Doctrine helps to define U.S. history from 1801 to 1850 as a period of expansion.

  • Explains how Reconstruction and the emergence of Jim Crow laws help to define U.S. history following the Civil War.

  • Explains how the rise of prominent American Indian leaders in resistance movements against U.S. encroachment helps to define U.S. history at the end of the 19th century.

Unit Outline 1: US-Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution (1776-1815)

Essential Question(s):



  • What are the origins and continuing influence of the key ideals of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution?

Guiding Question(s):



  • How did the United States become a nation and what issues did the young nation face?

  • How did the United States become a democratic republic?

  • How are power and responsibility distributed, shared, and limited in the government established by the United States Constitution?










Required GLE

Suggested Examples

HISTORY

4.1.2, Part 1

Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from 1776 to 1900:

  • Fighting for independence and framing the Constitution
    (1776—1815).


  • Explains how the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 help to define early U.S. history as a time of struggle for independence.

CIVICS

1.1.1

Understands key ideals and principles outlined in the Declaration of Independence, including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, the U.S. Constitution, including the rule of law, separation of powers, representative government, and popular sovereignty, and the Bill of Rights, including due process and freedom of expression.

  • Explains how the Declaration of Independence establishes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as goals for our nation

  • Explains how the Constitution distinguishes popular sovereignty as a principle of our nation.

1.2.3

Understands that the U.S. government includes concepts of both a democracy and a republic.

  • Explains how the United States government can be considered a “constitutional democracy” because the people are the ultimate source of authority.

  • Explains how the United States government can be considered a “constitutional republic because its leaders and officials are elected as representatives of the people.

GEOGRAPHY

3.2.1

Analyzes how the environment has affected people and how people have affected the environment in the United States in the past or present.

  • Examines how Pierre L’Enfant altered the landscape of Washington, D.C., in order to build the Capitol.

  • Examines how communication difficulties, due to the breadth of the Atlantic Ocean, were a factor in the Battle of New Orleans and the rise of Andrew Jackson.

3.2.3

Understands and analyzes migration as a catalyst on the growth of the United States in the past or present.

  • Examines the impact of the forced migration of slaves on the growth of the United States.

  • Explains the role of European immigrants in propelling Thomas Jefferson to the presidency.



Unit Outline 2: US- Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (1801-1850)

Essential Question(s):



  • What has been the legacy of slavery for people living in the United States?

Guiding Question(s):



  • How did the United States expand and what was the social, political, and cultural impact of this expansion?

  • What progress was made toward social, political, and economic reforms?










Required GLE

Suggested Examples

HISTORY

4.1.2, Part 2

Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from 1776 to 1900:

  • Slavery, expansion, removal, and reform (1801—1850).

  • Explains how the Monroe Doctrine and the concept of Manifest Destiny help to define U.S. history from 1801 to 1850 as a period of expansion.

GEOGRAPHY

3.2.2

Understands cultural diffusion in the United States from the past or in the present.

  • Explains the diffusion of Chinese culture in the West during the Gold Rush.

  • Explains how Mexican vaqueros introduced ranching practices.

HISTORY

4.2.2

Understands and analyzes how cultures and cultural groups have contributed to U.S. history (1776—1900).

  • Explains how African cultural and religious customs influenced the culture of the U.S.

  • Explains how the Whitmans and other missionaries affected the religious and social practices of indigenous people in the United States.

ECONOMICS

2.2.2

Understands and analyzes how the forces of supply and demand have affected international trade in the United States in the past or present.

  • Examines how England’s demand for cotton and indigo resulted in increased exports for the United States.

  • Examines how the European demand for animal furs impacted trade with the United States.

2.3.1

Understands and analyzes the influence of the U.S. government’s taxation, creation of currency, and tariffs in the past or present.

  • Examines how President Andrew Jackson used the protective tariff to secure emerging industries in the nineteenth century.

  • Examines and critiques how government’s laissez faire approach to business regulation led to the establishment of the Lowell Girls Union in the 1830s.

2.4.1

Understands and analyzes the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources in the United States in the past or present.

  • Compares the impact of Industrialization in the North on the standard of living of laborers and factory owners.

  • Analyzes how the growth of slavery throughout the South created an economic system dominated by large plantation owners.

CBA: Checks and Balances









Required GLE

Suggested Examples

CIVICS

1.2.1

Understands and analyzes the structure and powers of government at the national level.

  • Examines Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the powers and responsibilities of the House of Representatives and Senate.

  • Examines Article 2 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the powers and responsibilities of the President and his cabinet.

  • Examines Article 3 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the responsibilities and powers of the Supreme Court.

  • Examines how the Supreme Court exercised powers outlined in Article 3 of the Constitution when ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.

  • Examines how Congress exercised powers outlined in Article 1 of the Constitution when it passed the Missouri Compromise.

  • Examines how President Jefferson used
    Article 2 of the Constitution to justify his role in the Louisiana Purchase.

1.2.2

Evaluates the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances in the United States based on an event.

  • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances when President Andrew Jackson ignored the Supreme Court’s ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.

  • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances when President James Polk took control of Mexican territory without a formal declaration of war.

  • Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances in the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison.

SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS

5.1.1

Understands reasons based on evidence for a position on an issue or event.

  • Explains the reasons for one’s own position about the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances when Jackson ignored the Supreme Court Ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia.

  • Explains the reasons for one’s own position about the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances when Congress impeached Andrew Johnson.

5.1.2

Evaluates the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event.

  • Critiques the order and coherence of reasons when evaluating the effectiveness of the federal system of checks and balances during Andrew Jackson’s presidency.

  • Critiques the organization of reasons when evaluating the effectiveness of the federal system of checks and balances during the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.

5.4.1

Uses sources within the body of the work to support positions in a paper or presentation

  • Uses sources within the body of the work to support one’s position on the Indian Removal Act.

5.4.2

Uses appropriate format to cite sources within an essay or presentation.

  • Demonstrates proper citation by citing others’ ideas within an essay (e.g., MLA, APA).

Unit Outline 3: US- Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)

Essential Question(s):



  • How has the United States dealt with conflict within its own borders and what are the legacies of these conflicts?

Guiding Question(s):



  • What were the causes and consequences of the Civil War?







Required GLE

Suggested Examples

HISTORY

4.2.1

Understands and analyzes how individuals and movements have shaped U.S. history
(1776
1900).

  • Examines the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin on the abolitionist movement in the United States.

  • Explains the impact of the Seneca Falls Convention on the advancement of women’s rights.

  • Explains the impact the Lowell strike had on future labor movements.

4.2.3

Understands and analyzes how technology and ideas have impacted U.S. history (1776—1900).

  • Examines the effect of the cotton gin on propagating the expansion of slavery in the Southern U.S.

4.3.1

Analyzes and interprets historical materials from a variety of perspectives in U.S. history
(1776—1900).


  • Distinguishes between conflicting views of the reasons for Southern secession.

  • Examines artifacts documenting the various ways African Americans communicated on the Underground Railroad.

4.3.2

Analyzes multiple causal factors to create positions on major events in U.S. history (1776 – 1900).

  • Presents a position on the causes and outcomes of the Civil War demonstrating understanding of varying viewpoints of the conflict.

HISTORY

4.1.2, Part 3

Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from 1776 to 1900:

  • Civil War and Reconstruction (1850—1877).

  • Explains how Reconstruction and the emergence of Jim Crow laws help to define U.S. history following the Civil War.



Unit Outline 4: US- Development and Struggles in the West, Immigration, Industrialization, and Urbanization (1870-1900)

Essential Question(s):



  • How does the U.S. government conduct relations with other nations and international organizations?

Guiding Question(s):

  • How did industrialization, immigration, migration, and urbanization affect the United States to 1900?







Required GLE

Suggested Examples

HISTORY

4.1.2, Part 4

Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from 1776 to 1900:

  • Development and struggles in the West, industrialization, immigration, and urbanization (1870—1900).

  • Explains how the rise of prominent American Indian leaders in resistance movements against U.S. encroachment helps to define U.S. history at the end of the 19th century.

GEOGRAPHY

3.1.2

Understands and analyzes physical and cultural characteristics of places and regions in the United States from the past or in the present.

  • Examines how the railroad led to the development of Chicago as a leader in the meatpacking industry.

3.3.1

Understands that learning about the geography of the United States helps us understand the global issue of diversity.

  • Explains how westward migration and immigration led to the establishment of today’s multicultural communities in the West.

  • Explains how immigration caused by the transcontinental railroad led to anti-immigration sentiment that continues today.

ECONOMICS

2.1.1

Analyzes examples of how groups and individuals have considered profit and personal values in making economic choices in the past or present.

  • Examines how the profit motive inspired the entrepreneurship of Levi Strauss, Richard Sears, Alvah Roebuck, Henry Wells, and William G. Fargo during the Gold Rush.

  • Examines how the personal values of settlers determined what services were established, including saloons and general stores.

2.2.1

Analyzes how the forces of supply and demand have affected the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, services, and resources in the United States in the past or present.

  • Examines the use of immigrant labor in the building of the transcontinental railroads as a result of the forces of supply and demand.

CIVICS

1.3.1

Analyzes how the United States has interacted with other countries in the past or present.

  • Examines how the Dawes Act resulted in loss of land and economic devastation for tribes.

  • Examines how the United States government recruited workers from China to build the Transcontinental Railroad.

  • Examines how the United States recruited workers from Europe to provide industrial labor.

HISTORY

4.4.1

Analyzes how a historical event in United States history helps us to understand a current issue.

  • Examines how past immigration patterns to the United States have shaped modern immigration policy and public opinion.

  • Examines how the Sherman Anti-Trust Act helps us to understand corporate regulations today.

Unit Outline 5: US- Looking Forward

Essential Question(s):



  • What are the rights and responsibilities of U.S. citizens?

  • How can citizens participate in civic life?

  • How can we balance individual rights and the common good?

Guiding Question(s):

  • How has the United States government affected the lives of its people and how have its people affected the government?

CBA: Constitutional Issues









Required GLE

Suggested Examples

CIVICS

1.1.2

Evaluates efforts to reduce discrepancies between key ideals and reality in the United States including:

  • How amendments to the Constitution have sought to extend rights to new groups; and

  • How key ideals and constitutional principles set forth in fundamental documents relate to public issues.

  • Judges how well the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have expanded freedoms for African Americans and other groups in the past and present.

  • Judges the legacy of the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions in Seneca Falls in promoting women’s right to own property.

  • Judges the legacy of the Dawes Act in promoting the rights of tribal governments.

1.4.1

Analyzes an issue that attempts to balance individual rights and the common good.

  • Takes a position on federal immigration policy that attempts to balance human rights with national security.

  • Takes a position on government surveillance that attempts to preserve individual privacy while maintaining national security.

SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS

5.2.1

Creates and uses research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on an issue.

  • Develops research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on how the need for national security can be balanced with the right to individual privacy.

  • Develops research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on how amendments to the Constitution have sought to extend rights to disenfranchised individuals.

5.2.2

Evaluates the logic of positions in primary and secondary sources to interpret an issue or event.

  • Critiques the order and coherence of newscasts and newspaper articles on the contributions of migrant workers when interpreting various perspectives on federal immigration policy.

5.3.1

Applies key ideals outlined in fundamental documents to clarify and address public issues in the context of a discussion.

  • Applies key ideals outlined in the Constitution to clarify and address positions on federal immigration policy that attempt to balance human rights with national security.

  • Applies key ideals outlined in the Constitution to clarify and address the government’s position on surveillance that attempts to preserve individual privacy while maintaining national security.



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