Effective Schooling Practices: a research Synthesis 1995 Update


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The qualities of the school as a whole can either enhance or detract from the learning environment. Key factors in support of student success include efficient planning and clear goals, validated organization and management practices, strong leadership and continuous improvement, positive staff and student interactions, a commitment to educational equity, regular assessment, support programs, and positive relationships with parents and community members.


2.1.1 Everyone in the School Community Emphasizes the Importance of Learning.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Have high expectations for student achievement; all students are expected to work hard to attain priority learning goals.
b. Continually express expectations for improvement of the instructional program.
c. Emphasize academic achievement when setting goals and school policies.
d. Develop mission statements, slogans, mottos, and displays that underscore the school's academic goals.
e. Focus on student learning considerations as the most important criteria for making decisions.
Andrews and Soder (1987); Armor, et al. (1976); Austin and Holowenzak (1985); Bamburg (1994); Bamburg and Andrews (1987, 1991); Berliner (1979); Brookover and Lezotte (1979); Edmonds (1979a); Edmonds and Frederiksen (1979); Fullan (1994); Good (1987); Good and Brophy (1986); Hoy (1990); Keedy (1992); Larsen (1987); Levine (1990); Lezotte and Bancroft (1985); Little (1982); Madden, Lawson, and Sweet (1976); Murphy and Hallinger (1988); Paredes and Frazer (1992); Pavan and Reid (1994); Peng (1987); Purkey and Smith (1983); Rosenholtz (1985, 1989a,b); Rutter, et al. (1979); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Shann (1990); Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993-1994); Weber (1971); Wilson, B. L., and Corcoran (1988)

2.1.2 Administrators and Teachers Base Curriculum Planning on Clear Goals and Objectives.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Define learning goals and objectives clearly and display them prominently. They use building curriculumùand district curriculum resources, when availableùfor instructional planning.
b. Establish clear relationships among learning goals, instructional activities, and student assessments and display these in written form.
c. Engage in collaborative curriculum planning and decision making, focusing on building continuity across grade levels and courses; teachers know where they fit in the curriculum.
d. Work with each other, the students, and the community to promote understanding of the curriculum and the priorities within it.
e. Conduct periodic curriculum alignment and review efforts to ensure congruence with school and district goals.
Behr and Bachelor (1981); Berliner (1985); Block (1983); Bossert (1985); Cohen, S. A. (1994); Corcoran (1985); Deal and Peterson (1993); DeBevoise (1984); Edmonds (1979a); Engman (1989); Everson, et al. (1986); Good and Brophy (1986); Griswold, Cotton, and Hansen (1986); Hawley, et al. (1984); Hord (1992a); Larsen (1987); Leithwood and Montgomery (1982, 1985); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Lezotte and Bancroft (1985); Peng (1987); Rosenholtz (1985, 1989a,b); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Sarason (1971); Schau and Scott (1984); Scott (1984); Stevens (1985); Venezky and Winfield (1979); Vincenzi and Ayrer (1985)

2.1.3 Administrators and Teachers Integrate the Curriculum, as Appropriate.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Explore the feasibility of integrating traditional subject-area content around broad themes, and identify areas where this approach is appropriate.
b. Arrange time for teacher teams to work on integrating curriculum, plan instructional strategies, and develop assessments.
c. Make other resources available for use in integrated curriculum units in addition to textbooks.
d. Pursue curriculum integration gradually, so that staff can make adjustments, gain feelings of ownership, and evaluate the success of each effort.
e. As with any innovation, inform parents and community of the research and experience supporting curriculum integration and engage their support.
Aschbacher (1991); Brophy and Alleman (1991); Caine (1991); Friend (1985); Gehrke (1991); Greene (1991); Henderson and Landesman (1992); Herman (1992); Hough (1994); Ladewig (1987); Lake (1994); Levitan (1991); Martinez (1992); McCarthy and Still (1993); Meckler (1992); Slavin, et al. (1993); Vars (1987); Vye (1990); Willett (1992); Williams, D. (1991)

2.1.4 Administrators and Teachers Provide Computer Technology for Instructional Support and Workplace Simulation.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Receive training to enable them to use computer-assisted instruction effectively.
b. Use computer-assisted instruction as a supplement toùnot a replacement forùtraditional, teacher-directed instruction.
c. Provide computer activities that simulate workplace conditions and tasks to build employability skills for all students.
d. Make use of computers and word processing software to foster the development of writing skills.
e. Provide high-interest drill-and-practice programs to support learning, especially with students requiring skill remediation.
f. Provide computer-assisted instructional activities for chronically misbehaving students and students with negative attitudes toward traditional learning methods.
Bangert-Drowns (1985); Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, and Kulik (1985); Bahr and Rieth (1989); Bennett (1991); Bialo and Sivin (1980); Braun (1990); Capper and Copple (1985); Darter and Phelps (1990); Dickinson (1986); Ehman and Glen (1987); Fletcher, Hawley, and Piele (1990); Gore, et al. (1989); Keuper (1985); Kinnaman (1990); Kulik and Kulik (1987, 1991); Liao (1992); Mevarech and Rich (1985); Robertson (1987); Roblyer (1989); Rodrigues and Rodrigues (1986); Rupe (1986); Ryan (1991); Stennet (1985); Woodward, Carnine, and Gersten (1988)

2.1.5 Administrators and Teachers Include Workplace Preparation Among School Goals.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Recognize the importance of developing employability skills in all students, regardless of their postsecondary plans.
b. Include age-appropriate activities to develop workplace readiness skills at all levels, K-12.
c. Ensure that students develop the higher-order skills in demand in the modern workplaceùproblem-solving and decision-making skills, learning strategies, and creative thinking.
d. Give special emphasis to the development of qualities required for workplace successùdependability, positive attitude toward work, conscientiousness, cooperation, adaptability, and self-discipline.
e. Provide, for secondary students, learning environments that replicate key features of real work settings.
f. Give older students tasks which approximate those performed by people in real work settings.
g. Ensure that teachers have considerable autonomy in establishing learning activities, classroom design, and instructional approaches.
h. Assist secondary students in preparing and updating their written career plans to identify their future educational and occupational directions.
I. Help students to reflect on their school- and community-based learning experiences.
Beach (1982); Berryman (1988; 1991); Carnevale, Gainer, and Meltzer (1988); Cotton (1993a); Foster, Engels, and Wilson (1986); Gregson (1992); Gregson and Bettis (1991); Gregson and Trawinski (1991); Lankard (1990); Packer (1992); Parnell (1994); Poole (1985); SCANS Report (1991, 1992); Stacey (1994); Stasz (1990, 1993)


2.2.1 A School-Based Management Team Makes Many of the Decisions Regarding School Operations.

Team members:

a. Have the support of the district to make school-level decisions, provided these are in keeping with legal mandates and district goals.
b. Are broadly representative, including supportive administrators, teachers, other school staff, parent and community members, and students.
c. Communicate to constituents what school-based management is and secure their support.
d. Receive district-sponsored training in legal requirements, school operations, and group process skills.
e. Assume decision-making responsibility gradually, i.e., in one governance area (curriculum, instruction, budget, etc.) at a time.
f. Function as a true decision-making body rather than merely an advisory one, e.g., the principal does not have veto power over team decisions.
g. Involve teacher participants in decision making about their areas of expertise (curriculum and instruction) and avoid involving them in relatively trivial administrative matters.
h. Receive recognition for the increased effort that school-based management requires of participants.
Arterbury and Hord (1991); Bachus (1992); Caldwell and Wood (1988); Cistone, Fernandez, and Tornillo (1989); Conley and Bacharach (1990); David (1989); Hord (1992b); Jackson and Crawford (1991); Levine (1991); Levine and Eubanks (1992); Louis and King (1993); Malen, Ogawa, and Kranz (1990a,b, 1991); Mojkowski and Fleming (1988); Odden and Wohlstetter (1995); Short and Greer (1993); Taylor and Levine (1991); White, P. A. (1989); Wohlstetter, Smyer, and Mohrman (1994)

2.2.2 Administrators and Teachers Group Students in Ways That Promote Effective Instruction.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Place students in heterogeneous groups for required subjects and courses; they avoid underplacement of students.
b. Make use of instructional aides and grouping strategies to keep the student/adult ratio low, especially during instruction aimed at priority objectives.
c. Provide in-class instruction in small groups for low achievers whenever possible to promote academic success and avoid the stigma often associated with pull-out classes.
d. Make certain that ability groups, when used, are short term and that student placement is reviewed frequently for appropriateness.
e. Avoid the practice of long-term academic tracking, which research has shown to have negative effects on the achievement and attitudes of the majority of students.
f. Are aware of the many social and academic benefits of multiage (nongraded) grouping, especially for primary-level children, and at least explore the possibility of implementing this structure.
Abadzi (1984, 1985); Affleck, et al. (1988); Brookover and Lezotte (1979); Brown, K. S., and Martin (1989); California SDE (1977); Cohen, E. C. (1986); Cotton (1993b); Eames (1989); Evertson (1992); Gamoran (1987, 1992); Gamoran and Berends (1987); Garcia (1990); Gutierrez and Slavin (1992); Haller (1985); Hallinan (1984); Hawley, et al. (1984); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Miller, B. A. (1990); Oakes (1985, 1986a,b); Oakes, et al. (1990); Pavan (1992a,b); Peterson, P. L., Wilkinson, and Hallinan (1984); Schneider (1989); Slavin (1987a,b, 1993, 1994b); Slavin, et al. (1993); Sorenson and Hallinan (1986); Webb (1980); Winsler and Espinosa (1990)

2.2.3 Administrators and Teachers Assure That School Time is Use for Learning.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Schedule school events so as to avoid disruption of learning time.
b. Emphasize the importance of protecting learning time when interacting with each other and with parents and students.
c. Allocate school time for various subjects based on school and district goals and monitor time use to make certain allocations are followed.
d. Organize the school calendar to provide maximum learning time. They review potential new instructional programs and school procedures for their likely impact on learning time prior to adoption.
e. Keep unassigned time and time spent on noninstructional activities to a minimum during the school day; they keep loudspeaker announcements and other administrative intrusions brief and schedule them for minimal interference with instruction.
f. Ensure that the school day, classes, and other activities start and end on time.
g. Participate in inservice to improve their skills in making appropriate time allocations, managing students' behavior, and increasing student time on task.
h. Keep student pull-outs from regular classes to a minimum for either academic or nonacademic purposes, and monitor the amount of pull-out activity.
i. Provide extra learning time outside of regular school hours for students who need or want it.
j. Establish and enforce firm policies regarding tardies, absenteeism, and appropriate classroom behavior to maximize instructional time.
Anderson, L. W. (1983); Berliner and Cassanova (1989); Brookover and Lezotte (1979); Brophy (1988); Denham and Lieberman (1980); Evertson (1985); Fisher, et al. (1980); Fisher and Berliner (1985); Karweit (1984, 1985); Larsen (1987); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Mazzarella (1984); Peng (1987): Sanford, Emmer, and Clements (1983); Sanford and Evertson (1983); Slavin and Madden (1989b); Stallings (1980, 1985b); Strother (1985); Wiley and Harnischfeger (1974)

2.2.4 Administrators and Teachers Establish and Enforce Clear, Consistent Discipline Policies.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Provide a written code of conduct specifying acceptable student behavior, discipline procedures, and consequences. They make certain that students, parents and all staff members know the code by providing initial trainings and periodic reviews of key features.
b. Work to create a warm, supportive school environment. The principal, in particular, is visible and personable in interactions with staff and students.
c. Administer discipline procedures quickly following infractions, making sure that disciplinary action is consistent with the code and that all students are treated equitably. They take action on absenteeism and tardiness quicklyùnormally within a day.
d. Deliver sanctions that are commensurate with the offense committed.
e. Make certain that students understand why they are being disciplined, in terms of the code of conduct.
f. Carry out discipline in a neutral, matter-of-fact way, focusing on the student's behavior rather than personality or history.
g. Develop and use methods for providing positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior, particularly for those students with a history of behavior problems.
h. Assist students with behavior problems to develop social interaction, self-control, and anger management skills.
i. Avoid expulsions and out-of-school suspensions whenever possible, making use instead of in-school suspension accompanied by assistance and support.
j. Engage in problem solving with each other and with students to address discipline issues, focusing on causes rather than symptoms.
k. Strike agreements with parents about ways to reinforce school disciplinary procedures at home.
l. Adapt any commercial discipline programs used so that they match local circumstances and needs.
m. Develop and implement, as needed, projects to prevent violence and gang activity.
n. Engage in training activities to improve skills in prevention and remediation of violence and other discipline problems.
Bain, H. P., and Jacobs (1990); Block (1983); Boyd (1992); Brookover and Lezotte (1979); Cantrell and Cantrell (1993); Corcoran (1985); Cotton (1990b); Doyle (1989); Duke (1989); Edmonds (1979a,b, 1982); Edmonds and Frederiksen (1979); Fenley, et al. (1993); Good and Brophy (1986); Gottfredson, D. C. (1987); Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, and Hybl (1993); Hawley, et al. (1984); Lasley and Wayson (1982); Leach and Byrne (1986); Leming (1993); Levine and Eubanks (1989); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Madden, Lawson, and Sweet (1976); Render, Padilla, and Krank (1989); Rutter, et al. (1979); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Short (1988); Staub (1990); Wayson and Lasley (1984); Weber (1971); Wilson and Corcoran (1988); Wilson-Brewer, et al. (1991)

2.2.5 Administrators and Teachers Provide a Pleasant Physical Environment for Teaching and Learning.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Arrange for physical facilities to be kept clean and reasonably attractive; damage is repaired immediately.
b. Arrange for hallways and classrooms to be cheerfully decorated with student products, seasonal artwork, posters depicting positive values and school spirit, etc.
c. Provide classroom, meeting, and storage space sufficient for teaching and learning, conferences, inservice activities, etc.
d. Secure staff and student input periodically on facilities needsùrepair, replacement, refurbishing, temperature, cleanliness, etc.
e. Subdivide large facilities into smaller sections to facilitate communication and reduce isolation.
Anderson, C. S. (1985); Boyd (1992); Darder and Upshur (1992); Glatthorn (1989); Good and Brophy (1986); Hawley, et al. (1984); Hess (1987); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Little (1982); Peng (1987); Rutter, et al. (1979); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Shann (1990); Teddlie, Kirby, and Stringfield (1989); Wilson, B. L., and Corcoran (1988)


2.3.1 Leaders Undertake School Restructuring Efforts as Needed to Attain Agreed-upon Goals for Students.

Administrators and other leaders:

a. Review school operations in light of agreed-upon goals for student performance.
b. Work with school-based management team members to identify any needed changes (in organization, curriculum, instruction, scheduling, etc.) to support attainment of goals for students.
c. Identify kinds of staff development needed to enable school leaders and other personnel to bring about desired changes.
d. Study restructuring efforts conducted elsewhere for ideas and approaches to use or adapt.
e. Consider school contextual factors when undertaking restructuring effortsùfactors such as availability of resources, nature of incentives and disincentives, linkages within the school, school goals and priorities, factions and stresses among the staff, current instructional practices, and legacy of previous innovations.
Fortune, Williams, and White (1992); Fullan (1993); Lee and Smith (1993); Leithwood (1994); Lewis (1989); McCarthy and Still (1993): Murphy and Hallinger (1993); Prestine (1993); Prestine and Bowen (1993)

2.3.2 Strong Leadership Guides the Instructional Program.

Administrators and other instructional leaders:

a. Believe that all students can learn and that the school makes the difference between success and failure.
b. Emphasize learning as the most important reason for being in school; public speeches and writings emphasize the importance and value of high achievement.
c. Have a clear understanding of the school's mission and are able to state it in direct, concrete terms. They establish an instructional focus that unifies staff.
d. Seek, recruit and hire staff members who will support the school's mission and contribute to its effectiveness.
e. Know and can apply validated teaching and learning principles; they model effective teaching practices for staff as appropriate.
f. Know educational research, emphasize its importance, share it, and foster its use in problem solving.
g. Seek out innovative curricular programs, observe these, acquaint staff with them, and participate with staff in discussions about adopting or adapting them.
h. Set expectations for curriculum quality through the use of standards and guidelines. They periodically check the alignment of curriculum with instruction and assessment, establish curricular priorities, and monitor the implementation of curriculum.
i. Check student progress frequently, relying on explicit performance data. They make results public, and work with staff to set standards, use them as points of comparison, and address discrepancies.
j. Expect all staff to meet high instructional standards. They secure staff agreement on a schoolwide instructional model, make classroom visits to observe instruction, focus supervision activities on instructional improvement, and provide and monitor staff development activities.
k. Communicate the expectation that instructional programs will improve over time. They provide well-organized, systematic improvement strategies; give improvement activities high priority and visibility; and monitor implementation of new practices.
l. Involve the full staff in planning implementation strategies. They set and enforce expectations for participation, ensure that others follow through on commitments, and rally support from the different constituencies in the school community.
Andrews and Soder (1987); Bamburg and Andrews (1991); Berman and McLaughlin (1979); Biester, et al. (1984); Bossert (1988b); Brookover (1979b, 1981); Brookover and Lezotte (1979); Brundage (1979); Cawelti (1987); Corbett, et al. (1984); Cohen, S. A. (1994); Cohen, S. A., et al. (1989); Crisci, et al. (1988); DeBevoise (1984); Druian and Butler (1987); Eberts and Stone (1988); Edmonds (1979a); Emrick (1977); Everson, et al. (1986); Fullan (1994); Glasman (1984); Good and Brophy (1986); Krug (1992); Hallinger, Bickman, and Davis (1989); Hawley, et al. (1984); Heck (1992); High and Achilles (1986); Larsen (1987); Leithwood and Montgomery (1982, 1985); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Little (1982); Louis and Miles (1989); Madden, Lawson, and Sweet (1976); Ogawa and Hart (1985); Pavan and Reid (1991, 1994); Purkey and Smith (1983); Rosenholtz (1987, 1989a,b); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Schmitt, (1990); Venezky and Winfield (1979); Weber (1971)

2.3.3 Administrators and Other Leaders Continually Strive to Improve Instructional Effectiveness.

Administrators and other leaders:

a. Expect that educational programs will be changed so that they work better; they are never complacent about student achievement.
b. Direct school improvement efforts at clearly defined student achievement and/or social behavior goals; they secure schoolwide and community understanding and agreement about the purpose of improvement efforts.
c. Work with staff and school-based management groups to develop improvement goals based on review of school performance data; the goals then drive planning and implementation.
d. Review programs and practices shown to be effective in other school settings for their potential in helping to meet school needs.
e. Specify clearly the roles and responsibilities for the various aspects of the school improvement effort.
f. Check implementation carefully and frequently, note and publicize progress, and modify activities to make things work better.
g. Secure and encumber resources to support improvement activities, acquire resources from many sources including the community, and make resource allocations based on instructional priorities.
h. Renew or redirect the improvement focus as goals are achieved, report and celebrate success, and work with staff to establish new goals.
i. Allow adequate time for innovations to become integrated into the life of the school, and provide ongoing support to the full staff during the implementation process.
j. Provide periodic events to acknowledge and celebrate successes and to renew interest and energy for continued school improvement work.
Bamburg and Andrews (1989, 1991); Berman and McLaughlin (1979); Biester, et al. (1984); Bossert (1982, 1988); Boyd (1992); Brookover (1979b); Brundage (1979); David (1989); Deal and Peterson (1993); Edmonds (1979a, b); Emrick (1977); Everson, et al. (1986); Evertson (1986); Fullan (1992, 1994); Gall, et al. (1985); Good and Brophy (1985); Hallinger and Hausman (1993); Hawley, et al. (1984); Hord (1990, 1992); Hord and Huling-Austin (1986); Leithwood and Montgomery (1982); Levine (1990); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Little (1981, 1982); Louis and King (1993); Louis and Miles (1989); Madden, Lawson, and Sweet (1976); Murphy and Hallinger (1993); Oakes (1989); Pavan and Reid (1994); Purkey and Smith (1983); Rosenholtz (1985, 1989a,b); Sparks (1983, 1986); Stringfield and Teddlie (1988); Venezky and Winfield (1979); Weber (1971)

2.3.4 Administrators and Other Leaders Engage Staff in Professional Development and Collegial Learning Activities.

Administrators and other leaders:

a. Make resources available to support ongoing programs of professional development for staff.
b. Set aside time for staff development activities, with at least part of that time made available during the regular work day.
c. Solicit and use staff input for the content of professional development activities; staff must feel the activities are relevant to them in order to benefit.
d. Provide activities that enhance teacher's capabilities in the major areas of technical repertoire, reflective practice, application of research, and collaborative skills.
e. Review research findings to identify effective staff development approaches for improving student performance.
f. Recognize that adults, like children, have different learning styles and provide diverse kinds of activities in response to these differences.
g. Arrange for staff involvement in group staff development activities at the building and district levels.
h. Make certain that skill-building activities are delivered over time, so that staff have the opportunity to practice their new learnings and report outcomes.
i. Build into staff development activities the opportunity for participants to share ideas and concerns regarding the use of new programs and practices.
j. Provide or arrange for ongoing technical assistance for school staff as they pursue school improvement activities.
k. Provide follow-up activities to ensure that newly acquired knowledge and skills are applied in the classroom.
l. Make resources available for staff to participate in individual professional development activities to enhance job-related knowledge and skills.
m. Create structures for staff members to learn from one another through peer observation/feedback and other collegial learning activities.
n. Work to establish a norm of collegiality; communicate the expectation that staff members will routinely share ideas and work together to improve the instructional program.
Bamburg and Andrews (1991); Bennett (1987); Block (1983); Boyd (1992); Butler (1989, 1992); Corcoran (1985); David (1989); Deal and Peterson (1993); Eubanks and Levine (1983); Everson, et al. (1986); Evertson (1986); Fullan (1992, 1994); Gage (1984); Gall, et al. (1984); Gall and Renchler (1985); Hawley, et al. (1984); Hord and Huling-Austin (1986); Joyce and Showers (1980); Joyce, Murphy, Showers, and Murphy (1989); Korinek, Schmid, and McAdams (1985); Levine, Levine, and Eubanks (1985); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Little (1982, 1986); Loucks-Horsley, et al. (1987); Louis and King (1993); Louis and Miles (1989); March, et al. (1993); Murphy and Hallinger (1993); Oakes (1989); Rosenholtz (1985, 1989a,b); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Sparks (1983, 1986); Sparks and Loucks-Horsley (1990); Stevenson (1987); Wade (1985)


2.4.1 Administrators Communicate High Expectations for Teacher Performance.


a. Promote a schoolwide belief that all students can be successful learners and work with teachers to meet the challenge of teaching them.
b. Negotiate individual professional growth goals with each teacher. They use written supervision and evaluation procedures, and all staff receive feedback on performance at least annually.
c. Use guidelines made in advance for conducting classroom observation. They provide feedback quickly, placing emphasis on improving instruction and increasing student achievement.
d. Establish troubleshooting routines to help staff get quick resolution of instruction-related concerns.
e. Hold high expectations of themselves, assuming responsibility for student outcomes and making themselves visible and accessible to staff, students, parents, and community members.
Boyd (1992); Brookover and Lezotte (1979); DeBevoise (1984); Edmonds (1979a); Evertson (1986); Gaddy (1988); Gall and Renchler (1985); Good and Brophy (1986); Hallinger and Murphy (1985); Hord (1992a); Keedy (1992); Leithwood and Montgomery (1982, 1985); Levine (1990); Louis and King (1993); Louis and Miles (1989); Madden, Lawson, and Sweet (1976); Murphy and Hallinger (1985, 1988); Pavan and Reid (1991, 1994); Porter and Brophy (1988); Rosenholtz (1985, 1989a,b); Sparks (1983, 1986); Stevens (1985); Stringfield and Teddlie (1988); Tracz and Gibson (1986); Wade (1985)

2.4.2 Administrators and Other Leaders Provide Incentives, Recognition, and Rewards to Build Strong Staff Motivation.

Administrators and other leaders:

a. Recognize excellence in teaching, using school objectives and explicit criteria to make judgments. They include student achievement as an important criterion for determining teacher success.
b. Provide incentives and rewards to teachers who expand their knowledge and expertise by taking credit classes, applying for grants, or pursuing other professional development activities.
c. Conduct both formal and informal staff recognition, with at least some rewards made publicly.
d. Review incentive structures periodically to insure equity and effectiveness.
Anderson, C. S. (1985); Armor, et al. (1976); Block (1983); Boyd (1992); Brookover (1979); Brookover and Lezotte (1979); Fullan (1990. 1991); Good and Brophy (1986); Hawley, et al. (1984); Levine and Eubanks (1989); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Little (1982); Louis and Miles (1989); Mortimore, et al. (1988); Oakes (1989); Purkey and Smith (1983); Rosenholtz (1985, 1989a,b); Vincenzi and Ayrer (1985); Wade (1985); Wilson and Corcoran (1987)

2.4.3 Administrators and Teachers Communicate High Expectations to Students and Recognize Excellent Performance on a Schoolwide Basis.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Communicate warmth and caring to all students by learning their names and something about their strengths, interests, and needs.
b. Exhibit warmth and caring for each other in the presence of students to provide a model for them.
c. Communicate to students that they are important and valued through providing activities to develop good health habits and self-esteem, as well as prevention activities regarding dropping out, pregnancy, drugs, and violence.
d. Recognize and reward excellence in achievement and behavior. They ensure that requirements for awards are clear, that explicit procedures are used, and that evaluations are based on standards rather than comparisons with peers.
e. Provide opportunities for all students to excel in their areas of strength and receive recognition.
f. Match incentives and rewards to student developmental levels, ensuring that they are meaningful to recipients and structured to build persistence of effort and intrinsic motivation.
g. Allow older students considerable opportunity to manage their own learning and provide input into school policies and operations.
Amabile, Hennessy, and Grossman (1987); Anderson, C. S. (1985); Bain and Jacobs (1990); Boyd (1992); Cantrell and Cantrell (1993); Cotton (1989c, 1990a, 1991b); DeBevoise (1984); Dryfoos (1990); Duke (1989); Fenley, et al. (1993); Gottfredson, D. C., and Gottfredson (1989); Gottfredson, D. C., Gottfredson, and Hybl (1993); Gottfried and Gottfried (1991); Kearns (1988); Keedy (1992); Levine and Eubanks (1989); Murphy and Hallinger (1985); Paredes and Frazer (1992); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Shann (1990); Stiller and Ryan (1992); Wilson-Brewer, et al. (1991); Woods (1995)


2.5.1 Administrators and Teachers Provide Programs and Support to Help High-Needs Students Achieve School Success.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Focus on prevention of learning problems rather than remediation. Prevention programs featuring tutoring and/or small group instruction in reading are provided for young children.
b. Emphasize exploration, language development, and play in programs for pre-schoolers; kindergarten programs feature language and prereading skills using structured, comprehensive approaches.
c. Place high-needs students in comprehensive programs featuring detailed teachers' manuals, curriculum materials, lesson guides, and other support materials; they assure that these students are offered systematic alternatives to traditional instruction.
d. Place high-needs students in small classes (22 or fewer students) whenever possible.
e. Use proven methods such as continuous progress and cooperative learning to promote these students' learning success.
f. Carefully coordinate programs and activities for high-needs students (e.g., Chapter 1) with regular classroom activities.
g. Provide high-needs students instruction in test-taking skills and provide them activities to reduce test-taking anxiety.
h. Provide alternative learning arrangements which engage the special interests of older students (e.g., "school-within-a-school," off-campus activities).
i. Provide programs for older students which incorporate validated approaches such as peer, cross-age and volunteer tutoring and computer-assisted instruction.
j. Avoid retention in grade until all other alternatives have been considered and found inadequate.
k. Use pull-out programs judiciously, if at all, assuring that they are intensive, brief, and designed to catch students up with their peers quickly and return them to regular classroomsùnot to support them indefinitely. l. Use findings from ongoing monitoring efforts to adapt instruction to students' individual needs.
Allington and Johnston (1989); Bain and Jacobs (1990); Becker (1987); Brophy (1982); Chall and Snow (1988); Cotton (1989c); Crawford (1989); Cuban (1989); Druian and Butler (1987); Gall, et al. (1990); Glaser, et al. (1992); Gottfredson, G. D. (1988); Griswold, Cotton, and Hansen (1986); Honig (1989); Knapp, Turnbull, and Shields (1990); Levine and Eubanks (1989); Levine, Levine, and Eubanks (1987); Madden, et al. (1993); McPartland and Slavin (1990); NCRVE (1989); Nye, et al. (1992); Robinson (1990); Rowan and Guthrie (1989); Slavin (1987b, 1989a, 1994); Slavin and Madden (1989); Slavin, Karweit, and Madden (1989); Slavin, Karweit, and Wasik (1994); Stein, Leinhardt, and Bickel (1989); Wasik and Slavin (1994); Wheelock and Dorman (1988)

2.5.2 Administrators and Teachers Work to Achieve Equity in Learning Opportunities and Outcomes.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Make equitable distribution of achievement and other student outcomes a clearly stated and vigorously pursued school goal.
b. Disaggregate achievement and behavioral data (by race, gender, socioeconomic level, etc.) to achieve clear understanding of how students of different groups are performing.
c. Gather information on ways to meet the needs of underserved groups.
d. Implement practices identified by research as promoting the achievement of high-needs groups (cited throughout this document).
Allen and Tadlock (1987); Arcia and Gallagher (1992); Baker (1992); Dreeben (1987); Epstein and MacIver (1992); Lee and Smith (1993); Marchant (1990); Martin-McCormick, et al. (1985); Moore (1988); Murphy and Hallinger (1989); Polanen (1991); Rumberger and Douglas (1992)

2.5.4 Administrators and Teachers Provide Multicultural Education Activities as an Integral Part of School Life.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Integrate multicultural activities fully into the school curriculum, rather than restricting them to one-shot or culture-of-the-month sessions.
b. Involve all students in multicultural activitiesùnot just those students belonging to minority cultural groups.
c. Make multicultural activities a norm from the beginning of children's school experience.
d. Communicate respect for cultural plurality by recognizing and responding to culturally based differences in learning style.
e. Access and use the training and materials needed to deliver high-quality multi-cultural education activities; administrators provide ongoing support.
Byrnes and Kiger (1987); Campbell and Farrell (1985); Cotton (1993b); Darder and Upshur (1992); Garcia, J., Powell, and Sanchez (1990); Gimmestad and DeChiara (1982); Gottfredson, Nettles, and McHugh (1992); Grant, Sleeter, and Anderson (1986); Hart and Lumsden (1989); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Lomotey (1989); Merrick (1988); Pate (1981, 1988); Pine and Hilliard (1990); Rich (1987); Swisher (1990); Valverde (1988)

2.5.5 Administrators and Teachers Provide Challenging Academic Content and English Language Skills for Language Minority Students.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Offer language minority students a strong academic core program, like that provided for other students.
b. Identify and review promising practices for language-minority students.
c. Conduct assessment of English and native language proficiency as students enroll in the school and periodically thereafter.
d. Provide non-English-speaking (NES) students intensive English-as-a-Second Language instruction.
e. Provide NES students instruction in their native languages for their core classes whenever possible. If this is not feasible, they provide native-language materials and, where possible, tutoring in their native languages.
f. Provide limited-English-proficient (LEP) students a combination of instruction in their native languages and instruction in English.
g. Engage volunteer tutors to help students to acquire English language literacy.
h. Group students heterogeneously by ability and language so that they can learn from one another.
Ascher (1985); ASCD Panel (1987); Collier (1992); Cummins (1986); Darder and Upshur (1992); Fillmore and Valadez (1986); Garcia, E. E. (1988, 1990); Lucas, Henz, and Donato (1990); National Hispanic Commission (1984); Ramirez, Yuen, and Ramey (1991); Reyes (1992); Saldate, Mishra, and Medina (1985); So (1987); Tikunoff (1985); Valadez and Gregoire (1989)


2.6.1 Administrators and Other Building Leaders Monitor Student Learning Progress Closely.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Engage in professional development activities to build assessment skills and evaluate the quality of assessment methods and data.
b. Collect and review performance data to ensure early identification and treatment of young children with learning difficulties.
c. Review test results, grade reports, attendance records, and other materials to spot potential problems, and make changes in instructional programs and school procedures to meet identified needs.
d. Review assessment instruments and methods for cultural, gender, or other bias and make changes as needed.
e. Make summaries of student performance available to all staff, who then assist in developing action alternatives. They also make periodic reports to parents and community members.
f. Coordinate assessment activities so that district, school, and classroom efforts work together and duplication of effort is minimized. They review assessment methods to ensure alignment with curriculum and instruction.
g. Establish and use procedures for collecting, summarizing, and reporting student achievement information. They establish and periodically update individual student records and use them to make group summaries and review them for trends.
h. Include assessment of school climate as part of assessment of student performance.
i. Use data from periodic assessment reviews when conducting curriculum reviews.
Block (1983); Blum and Butler (1985); Bossert (1985); Brookover (1979); Cawelti (1987); Cohen, S. A. (1991, 1994); Cohen, S. A., et al. (1989); Corcoran (1985); Costa and Kallick (1992); Edmonds (1979a); Everson, et al. (1986); Fullan (1992); Griswold, Cotton, and Hansen (1986); Glasman (1984); Hawley, et al. (1984); Hord (1992a); Leithwood and Montgomery (1982); Levine and Lezotte (1990); Louis and Miles (1989); Madden, Lawson, and Sweet (1976); Mortimore and Sammons (1987); Mortimore, et al. (1988); Pajak and Glickman (1987); Purkey and Smith (1983); Slavin, Karweit, and Madden (1989); Stiggins (1991); Venezky and Winfield (1979); Weber (1971); Wilson and Corcoran (1988)

2.6.2 Administrators and Other Building Leaders Develop and Use Alternative Assessments.

Administrators and other leaders:

a. Engage schoolwide and community support for increased use of alternative assessments.
b. Ensure that alternative assessments align with curriculum and instruction.
c. Encourage teachers to incorporate alternative assessment practices in their classrooms.
d. Arrange for staff development activities to build alternative assessment skills, such as developing rubrics, establishing standards, designing performance tasks, and managing portfolio assessments.
e. Work with staff to systematize methods for collecting and reporting information produced by alternative assessments.
f. Collect and make available alternative assessment resources developed and used in other settings.
Baker (1992); Belk and Calais (1993); Calfee and Perfumo (1993); Costa and Kallick (1992); Haas (1990); Herman (1992); Hodges (1992); McMullen (1993); Newell (1992); Rafferty (1993); Shavelson and Baxter (1992); Shepard (1989); Telese (1993); Wiggins (1992)


2.7.1 Administrators and Teachers Identify Dropout-Prone Students and Implement Activities to Keep Them in School.1

Administrators and teachers:

a. Explore the possibility of housing dropout-prevention services in settings outside of schools.
b. Implement flexible programming and scheduling to accommodate students who are parents or who work during school hours.
c. Implementùor establish links withùprograms to help dropout-prone students with school-to-work transitions.
d. Form partnerships with businesses in the community and promote community-based learning.
e. Secure input from dropout-prone students for designing dropout prevention/reduction activities.
f. Provide students with learning activities that have real-world applications.
Baecher, Cicchelli, and Baratta (1989); Bickel, Bond, and LeMahieu (1986); Dryfoos (1990); Glaser, et al. (1992); Hergert (1991); Mayer (1993); Orr (1987); Paredes and Frazer (1992); Peck, N., Law, and Mills (1987); Presson and Bottoms (1992); Wehlage (1991); Williams, S. B. (1987); Woods (1995)

2.7.2 Administrators and Teachers Use Validated Practices for Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Prevention.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Begin prevention activities with students in the primary grades and continue them through high school. Programs for young children focus on positive self-regard and making healthy choices; those for older children include drug-specific activities.
b. Provide activities that move beyond giving information to influencing attitudes and behavior.
c. Use multiple strategies, including provision of accurate drug-related information in combination with training in general life skills, "refusal skills," understanding and resisting media pressure, and positive alternatives to drug use.
d. Incorporate at least some peer-led activities into prevention programs.
e. Provide periodic "booster" sessions after initial instruction, recapping major points and offering opportunity for discussion and role-playing.
f. Target some prevention activities to specific, high-risk groupsùinner-city youth, girls, gay and lesbian youth, and emotionally disturbed and learning disabled students.
g. Focus more on short-term, personally meaningful consequences of substance useùbad breath from smoking, loss of driver's license, etc.ùthan on long-term health risks.
h. Know that "scare tactics" do not work and avoid using them.
i. Set and enforce clear policies regarding drug possession, use, or sale.
j. Provide aftercare support for students who have received alcohol or drug treatment or are involved in smoking cessation.
k. Enlist the support of parents and community members in designing and reinforcing the school's prevention program.
l. Collaborate with community agencies and volunteers to provide drug-free athletic and other activities for students.
Austin (1994); Bangert-Drowns (1988); Benard, Fafoglia, and Perone (1987); Cotton (1990a); DeJong (1987); Ellickson and Robyn (1987); Ertle (1994); Glynn (1983); Gold, Gold, and Carpino (1989); Goodstadt (1986); Harkin (1987); Johnson, E. M., et al. (1988); Kim, McLeod, and Palmgren (1989); Oei and Fea (1987); Pearish (1988); Polich, et al. (1984); Randall (1989); Schaps, et al. (1986); Singer and Garcia (1988); USDE (1992, n.d.); USDHHS (1987)

2.7.3 School Leaders and Staff Collaborate with Community Agencies to Support Families with Urgent Health and/or Social Service Needs.

School leaders and staff:

a. Learn about the array of medical and social service providers in the community and how to access them.
b. Learn about models for school-community collaboration for needy families that have been implemented in other settings.
c. Work with health and social service agencies to coordinate the delivery of services to children and families. Whether or not the school is the entry point for families to seek services is a matter of local preference.
d. Assist needy families to access appropriate health and social service facilities and providers in the community.
e. Identify needy children and families early in the children's school experience and work with community agencies on prevention and intervention activities.
f. Engage in true collaboration with community agencies by, for example, providing office space for a social service provider whose salary is paid by an external agency.
Ascher (1988, 1990); Bain and Herman (1989); Cohen, D. L. (1989); Comer (1986, 1988); Cotton (1992c); Cuban (1989); Fillmore and Valadez (1986); Gursky (1990); Guthrie and Guthrie (1991); Hodgkinson (1991); Madden, et al. (1993); McCurdy (1990); McPartland and Slavin (1990); Oakes (1987); Pollard (1990a,b,c); Sylvester (1990)


2.8.1 Administrators and Teachers Involve Parents and Community Members in Supporting the Instructional Program.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Communicate repeatedly to parents that their involvement can greatly enhance their children's school performance, regardless of their own level of education.
b. Offer parents several different options for their involvement, e.g., tutoring their children at home, assisting in classrooms, participating in parent-teacher conferences, etc.
c. Strongly encourage parents to become involved in activities that support the instructional program.
d. Provide parents with information and techniques for helping students learn (e.g., training sessions, handbooks, make-and-take workshops, etc.).
e. Establish and maintain regular, frequent home-school communications. This includes providing parents with information about student progress and calling attention to any areas of difficulty.
f. Involve community members in schoolwide and classroom activities, giving presentations, serving as information resources, functioning as the audience for students' published writings, etc.
Armor, et al. (1976); Becher (1984); Block (1983); Brookover (1979); Cotton (1991b); Cotton and Wikelund (1989); Griswold, Cotton, and Hansen (1986); Gursky (1990); Hawley, et al. (1984); Henderson (1987); Levine and Stark (1981, 1982); Sattes (1985); Stevens (1985); Tangri and Moles (1987); Walberg, Bole, and Waxman (1980); Walson, Brown, and Swick (1983)

2.8.2 Administrators and Teachers Involve Parents and Community Members in School Governance.

Administrators and teachers:

a. Develop written policies which legitimize the importance of parent involvement and provide ongoing support to parent involvement efforts.
b. Communicate clearly to parents the procedures for involvement and use the procedures consistently.
c. Engage parent and community participation on school-based management teams.
d. Conduct vigorous outreach activitiesùespecially in culturally diverse school settingsùto involve parent and community representatives from all cultural groups in the community.
e. Make special efforts to involve the parents of disadvantaged, racial minority, and language minority students, who are often underrepresented among parents involved in the schools.
f. Work with cultural minority parents and community members to help children cope with any differences in norms noted between the home and the school.
g. Involve parents and community members in decision making regarding school governance and school improvement efforts.
h. Monitor and evaluate parent/community involvement activities and continually work to keep participation effective.
i. Publish indicators of school quality and provide them to parents and community members periodically to foster communication and stimulate public action.
j. Involve business, industry, and labor in helping to identify important learning outcomes and in providing opportunities to apply school learnings in workplace settings.
Baecher, Cicchelli, and Baratta (1989); Becher (1984); Boyd (1992); Cotton and Wikelund (1990); David (1989); Glaser, et al. (1992); Grobe (1993); McCarthy and Still (1993); Murphy (1988); New York SDE (1974); Pavan and Reid (1994); Sammons, Hillman, and Mortimore (1994); Stacey (1994); Stiller and Ryan (1992); Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (1993-1994); Williams and Chavkin (1989); Wilson, B. L., and Corcoran (1988)

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