Effective Schooling Practices: a research Synthesis 1995 Update

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Effective Schooling Practices:
A Research Synthesis
1995 Update

Kathleen Cotton

The Schooling Practices That Matter Most

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by Kathleen Cotton

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The Effective Schooling Research

How to Use the Synthesis

How to Access the Research

Further Information and Ordering


1. Classroom Characteristics and Practices

1.1 Planning and Learning Goals

1.1.1 Preplanned Curriculum
1.1.2 Curriculum Integration

1.2 Classroom Management and Organization

1.2.1 Grouping
1.2.2 Time Use
1.2.3 Routines
1.2.4 Behavior Standards

1.3 Instruction

1.3.1 Orientation to Lessons
1.3.2 Clear and Focused Instruction
1.3.3 Feedback and Reinforcement
1.3.4 Review and Reteaching
1.3.5 Thinking Skills Instruction
1.3.6 Questioning Techniques
1.3.7 Workplace Readiness

1.4 Teacher-Student Interactions

1.4.1 High Expectations
1.4.2 Incentives and Rewards
1.4.3 Positive Personal Interactions

1.5 Equity

1.5.1 High-Needs Students
1.5.2 Fostering Resiliency
1.5.3 Intergroup Harmony

1.6 Assessment

1.6.1 Monitoring Student Progress
1.6.2 Using Alternative Assessments

2. School Characteristics and Practices

2.1 Planning and Learning Goals

2.1.1 Schoolwide Emphasis on Learning
2.1.2 Curriculum Planning
2.1.3 Curriculum Integration
2.1.4 Computer Technology
2.1.5 Workplace Readiness

2.2 School Management and Organization

2.2.1 School-Based Management
2.2.2 Grouping
2.2.3 Time Use
2.2.4 Discipline
2.2.5 Physical Environment

2.3 Leadership and School Improvement

2.3.1 Restructuring
2.3.2 Instructional Leadership
2.3.3 Instructional Improvement
2.3.4 Professional Development/Collegial Learning

2.4 Administrator-Teacher-Student Interactions

2.4.1 High Expectations of Teachers
2.4.2 Staff Incentives and Rewards
2.4.3 High Expectations of Students

2.5 Equity

2.5.1 Instructional Support for High-Needs Students
2.5.2 Learning Opportunities and Outcomes
2.5.3 Intergroup Harmony
2.5.4 Multicultural Education
2.5.5 Language-Minority Students

2.6 Assessment

2.6.1 Monitoring Student Progress
2.6.2 Alternative Assessment

2.7 Special Programs

2.7.1 Dropout Prevention
2.7.2 Substance Abuse Prevention
2.7.3 Collaboration with Community Agencies to Assist Families

2.8 Parent and Community Involvement

2.8.1 Instructional Support
2.8.2 School Governance

3. District Characteristics and Practices

3.1 Leadership and Planning

3.1.1 Expectations
3.1.2 Support for Excellence and Equity

3.2 Curriculum

3.2.1 Curriculum Planning and Development

3.3 District-School Interactions

3.3.1 Delegating Authority to Schools
3.3.2 Support and Monitoring of School Improvement
3.3.3 Recognition and Rewards
3.3.4 Support of Special Programs

3.4 Assessment

3.4.1 Monitoring Student Progress
3.4.2 Support for Alternative Assessment



This is the third edition of a research synthesis document that was first published by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) in 1984 and updated in 1990. This edition reflects educational research literature published within the past five years, together with inquiries into topical areas not investigated previously. Like its predecessors, this synthesis cites classroom, school, and district practices that research has shown to foster positive student achievement, attitudes, and social behavior.

The 1984 synthesis featured findings from the now-classic "school effectiveness" research conducted in the 1970s and early 1980s. That research studied effective and ineffective schools and classrooms with similar student populations and identified key differences in their organization, management, curriculum, and instruction.

The 1990 synthesis update retained that information, adding refinements to those earlier findings and results from other areas of investigation, such as questioning strategies, high-needs populations, and professional development for teachers.

This 1995 update augments previous work by identifying (1) additional findings in familiar topical areas and (2) findings on topics of more recent research interest. Among these newer areas of focus are:

  • Curriculum integration

  • Alternative assessment

  • School-based management

  • Prevention of substance abuse, dropping out, and social disruption

  • Social and academic resiliency

  • Higher-level thinking skills

  • Attitudes and skills for workplace readiness

  • Intercultural relations and multi-cultural learning.

Inevitably, the revision process also required the deletion of many bibliographic citations that appeared in the earlier versions in order to create space for newer entries. In culling the bibliography, we have attempted to retain classic and seminal reports, while removing many older, less rigorous, redundant, or difficult-to-find items.

The result of this work is that the assertions made in this synthesis are supported by more than 1,000 of the highest-quality and most useful studies and summaries available.

Directory: kozloffm
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kozloffm -> Lessons on the Declaration of Independence As Part of a Unit on American Independence
kozloffm -> Definitions of Variables Martin Kozloff a definition is a statement that tells what a word a name
kozloffm -> Speech to the Third Army
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kozloffm -> Spartan Poetry and Memorials Use inductive reasoning: compare and contrast samples and identify common concepts and rules/principles regarding Make generalizations about how the Spartans define, valued, guided themselves by
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kozloffm -> Making Sense of What You Read and Hear, and Making Sense When You Teach Martin Kozloff You need to know this, and you need to teach it to your students

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