3. Chandra Mohanty, "Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses," Feminist Review 30 (1988), 61-85.
4. Quoted in Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation (New York: Routledge, 1992), 167-68.
5. Quoted in Mrinalini Sinha and Katherine Mayo, eds., Mother India (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000), 1.
6. Radha Kumar, The History of Doing: An Illustrated Account of Movements for Women's Rights and Feminism in India, 1800-1990 (London: Verso, 1993), 2.
7. Check: Sha’arawi, “Egyptian Women’s Movement,” in Middle Eastern Women Speak, Elizabeth Warnock Fernea and Basima Qattan Bezirgan, eds. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977) 193-200 [which page for the quote]
8. Quoted in Opening the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing, eds. Margot Badran and Miriam Cooke (London: Virago, 1990), 355.
9. Quoted in Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest (New York: Routledge, 1994), 381.
10. Helie-Lucas, “Women, Nationalism and Religion in the Algerian Liberation Struggle,” (1987), in Badran and Cooke, 110.
11. Joyce Zonana, “The Sultan and the Slave: Feminist Orientalism and the Structure of Jane Eyre,” Signs 18:3 (1993), 592-617; Leila Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women’s Movement (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997), 75ff.
12. Quoted in Rupp, Worlds of Women, 80.
13. Quoted in Rupp, 77.
14. Ibid, 224-225; “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” in Human Rights Documents (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983), 61-67.
15. Quoted in Barry Schlachter, “International News,” Associated Press, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15, 1985.
16. NGO Forum ‘80 newsletter (Copenhagen), quoted in Charlotte Bunch, Passionate Politics: Feminist Theory in Action (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987), 299.
17. Charlotte Bunch, “U.N. World Conference in Nairobi: A View from the West,” Ms., 1985, reprinted in Bunch, 325.
18. Quoted in Arvonne S. Fraser, The U.N. Decade for Women: Documents and Dialogue (Boulder: Westview Press, 1987), 155.
19. Quoted in Bunch, 300.
20. Johnson-Odim, “Common Themes, Different Contexts: Third World Women and Feminism,” in Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres, eds., (Bloomington, Indiana, 1991), 317.
21. “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women,” in Human Rights Documents, 139-40.
22. ???Women’s International Network Magazine, accessible online at http://www.winmagazine.org/; also see http://www.eagleforum.org. The U.S. Senate has never ratified C.E.D.A.W., although President Carter signed the treaty for the U.S. in 1980.
24. Naila Kabeer, Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought (London: W.W. Norton, 1994), 27.
25. Aiwa Ong, Spirits of Resistance and Capitalist Discipline (New York: State Univ of New York Pr, 1999), 163-168.
26. “The 25 Year Life Story of the Institute for Women’s Studies in the Arab World,” Al-Raida 57 (1998), 83-84. See also Helen Zweifel, “The Gendered Nature of Biodiversity Conservation,” National Women’s Studies Association Journal 9:3 (1997), 106-116.
27. The term comes from Amrita Basu, ed., The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective. (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995).
28. Association of African Women for Research and Development, “A Statement on Genital Mutilation,” in Third World, Second Sex: Women's Struggle and National Liberation/Third World Women Speak Out, ed. Miranda Davies (London: Zed Books, 1983), vol. 2, 217-219.
29. Domitila Barrios de la Chungara, “Women and Organization,” in Davies, 39-59.
30. Nilufer Cagatay, Caren Grown, and Aida Santiago, “Nairobi Women’s Conference: Toward a Global Feminism?” (1986), quoted in Johnson-Odim, 325.
31.Quotes from Eugenia Delamotte, Natania Meeker, and Jean O’Barr, eds., Women Imagine Change: A Global Anthology of Women’s’s Resistance, From 600 B.C.E. to Present (New York: Routledge, 1997), 455; Hussaina Abdullah, “Wifeism and Activism: The Nigerian Women’s Movement,” in Basu, 212; Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Conquest (New York : Routledge, 1994), 384; on the ANC, see Gwendolyn Mikell, ”African feminism: toward a new politics of representation,”