the present book, apart from its greater extent and certain differences of statement and arrangement, has, in general, the same plan as the author's Greek Grammar for Schools and Colleges. It is a descriptive, not an historical, nor a comparative, grammar. Though it has adopted many of the assured results of Comparative Linguistics, especially in the field of Analogy, it has excluded much of the more complicated matter that belongs to a purely scientific treatment of the problems of Morphology. It has been my purpose to set forth the essential forms of Attic speech, and of the other dialects, as far as they appear in literature; to devote greater attention to the Formation of Words and to the Particles than is usually given to these subjects except in much more extensive works ; and to supplement the statement of the principles of Syntax with information that will prove of service to the student as his knowledge widens and deepens.
As to the extent of all amplification of the bare facts of Morphology and Syntax, probably no two makers of a book of this character, necessarily restricted by considerations of space, will be of the same mind. I can only hope that I have attained such a measure of success as will commend itself to the judgment of those who are engaged in teaching Greek in our colleges and universities. I trust, however, that the extent of the enlarged work may lead no one to the opinion that I advocate the study of formal grammar as an end in itself; though I would have every student come to know, and the sooner the better, that without an exact knowledge of the language there can be no thorough appreciation of the literature of Ancient Greece, or of any other land ancient or modern.
In addition to the authorities mentioned on page 5, I have consulted with profit Delbriick's Syntaktische Forschungen, Gilder-sleeve's numerous and illuminating papers in the American Journal of Philology and in the Transactions of the American Philological Association, Schanz's Beitrcige zur historischen Syntax der griechischen Sprache, Kiddell's Digest of Platonic Idioms, La Roche's Gramma-tische Studien in the Zeitschrift fur oesterreichische Gymnasien for 1904, Forman's Selections from Plato, Schulze's Quaestiones
Epicae, Hale's Extended and Remote Deliberatives in Greek in the Transactions of the American Philological Association for 1893, Harry's two articles, Tlie Omission of the Article with Substantives after outo«, 6'Se, cxeivos in Prose in the Transactions for 1898, and The Perfect Subjunctive, Optative^ and Imperative in GreeJc in the Classical Review for 1905, Headlam's Greek Prohibitions in the Classical Review for 1905, Marchant's papers on The Agent in the Attic Orators in the same journal for 1889, Miss Meissner's dissertation on yap (University of Chicago), Stahl's Kritisch-historische Syntax des griechischerf Verbums, and Wright's Comparative Grammar of the GreeJc Language. I have examined many school grammars of Greek in English, German, and French, among which I would particularize those of Hadley-Allen, Goodwin, Babbitt, Goodell, Sonnenschein, Kaegi, Koch, Croiset et Petitjean. I am much indebted also to Thompson's Greek Syntax,
I would finally express my thanks for helpful criticism from Professor Alien E,. Benner of Andover Academy, Professor Haven D. Brackett of Clark College, Professor Hermann Collitz of the Johns Hopkins University, Professor Archibald L. Hodges of the Wadleigh High School, New York, Dr. Maurice W. Mather, formerly Instructor in Harvard University, Professor Hanns Oertel of Yale University, and Professor Prank E. Woodruff of Bowdoin College. Dr. J. W. H. Walden, formerly Instructor in Harvard, has lent me invaluable aid by placing at my service his knowledge and skill in the preparation of the Indices.
Aug. 1, 1918.
The Greek Language and its Dialects ........ 1
Advanced Works on Grammar and Dialects . . . . . . 5
Abbreviations ............ 6
PART I: LETTERS, SOUNDS, SYLLABLES, ACCENT The Alphabet ............ 7
ov and f/i with the Infinitive . . . . . . . . 615-618
Not in Indirect Discourse ......... 615
In Indirect Discourse . . . . . . . . . ,617
ov and p-f/ with the Participle ......... 618
ov and u.'fi with Substantives and Adjectives used Substantively . . . 610 ovdets, pATjSeis ............. 620
Apparent Exchange of ov and ^,17 ......... 620
/j.'fl and /j.t] ov with the Infinitive depending on Verbs of Negative Meaning . 622 /iri) ov with the Infinitive depending on Negatived Verbs .... 624
H^ ov with the Participle depending on Negatived Verbs . , . 625 fi-fl and fj,^ ov with the Subjunctive and Indicative ..... 626
Redundant ov with ir\^v, etc. ......... 626
ov fj.r/ .............. 620
Negatives with &are and the Infinitive . . . . . . . .627
Accumulation of Negatives .......... 628
Some Negative Phrases .......... 629
General View . . . . . . . . . . . .631
List of Particles ........... 632-671
List of Grammatical and Rhetorical Figures
Appendix : List of Verbs ......... 684-722
English Index ........... 723-756
Greek Index ........... 757-784
THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND ITS DIALECTS
A. Greek, the language of the inhabitants of Greece, has been constantly spoken from the time of Homer to the present day. The inhabitants of ancient Greece and other Greeks dwelling in the islands and on the coasts of the Mediterranean called themselves (as do the modern Greeks) by the name Hellenes ("EXA^ves), their country Hellas ('EAAas), and their language the Hellenic (17 'EAA^viK?) yXSrra). We call them Greeks from the Latin Graeci, the name given them by the Romans, who applied to the entire people a name properly restricted to the Tpaloi, the first Hellenes of whom the Eomans had knowledge.
N. 1. — Gh-aeci (older G-raici} contains a Latin suffix -ieus; and the ns,m9 TpaiKoi, which occurs first in Aristotle, is "borrowed from Latin. The Roman designation is derived either from the Tpcuoi, a Boeotian tribe that took part in the colonization of Cyme in Italy, or from the Tpatoi, a larger tribe of the same stock that lived in Epirus.
N. 2. — No collective name for ' all Greece ' appears in Homer, to whom the Hellenes are the inhabitants of Hellas, a district forming part of the kingdom of Peleus (B 683) and situated in the S.B. of the country later called Thessaly, 'BXXds for ' all Greece ' occurs first in Hesiod. The Greeks in general are callei by Homer A%cuo£, A-pyelot, Aarao£.
B. Greek is related to the languages of the Indians (Sanskrit), Persians (Zend), Armenians, Albanians, Slavonians, Lithuanians, Romans, Celts, and Germans. These various languages are all of the same stock, and together constitute the Indo-European family of languages. An important relation of Greek to English, which is a branch of the Germanic tongue, is illustrated by Grimm's law of the 'permutation of consonants':
r = th
7 = c(K) Hypos
The above English words are said to be cognate with the Greek words. Derived words, such as geography, theatre, are borrowed, directly or indirectly, from the Greek (yewypa^id, Oearpov).
GKEEK GRAM. —— 1
C. At the earliest known period of its history the Greek language was divided into dialects. Corresponding to the chief divisions of the Greeks into Aeolians, Dorians, and lonians (a division unknown to Homer), three groups of dialects are commonly distinguished: Aeolic, Doric, and Ionic, of which Attic is a sister dialect. Aeolic and Doric are more nearly related to each other than is either to Ionic.
Aeolic: spoken in Aeolis, Lesbos, and kindred with the dialect of Thessaly (except Phthiotis) and of Boeotia (though Boeotian has many Doric ingredients). In this book 'Aeolic' means Lesbian Aeolic.
N. 1. — Aeolic retains primitive a (30) ; changes t before i to a (115) ; has recessive accent (162 D.), and many other peculiarities.
Doric: spoken in Peloponnesus (except Arcadia and Elis), in several of the islands of the Aegean (Crete, Melos, Thera, Ehodes, etc.), in parts of Sicily and in Southern Italy.
N. 2.— Doric retains primitive 5 (30), keeps t before i (115 T).). Almost all Doric dialects have -,ues for -/tec (462 D.), the infinitive in -/j.et> for -cot (469 D.), the future in -fw from verbs in -fw (516 D.), the future in -
N. 3.— The sub-dialects of Laconia, Crete, and Southern Italy, and of their several colonies, are often called Severer (or Old) Doric; the others are called Milder (or New) Doric. Severer Doric has 17 and ia where Milder Doric has « and ok (59 D. 4, 5 ; 230 D.). There are also differences in verbal forms (654).
Ionic: spoken in Ionia, in most of the islands of the Aegean, in a few towns of Sicily, etc.
N. 4. —Ionic changes primitive a to 77 (30) ; changes t before i to a (115) ; has lost digamma, which is still found in Aeolic and Doric ; often refuses to contract vowels; keeps a mute smooth before the rough breathing (124 D.) ; has k for it in pronominal forms (132 D.).
N. 5. — The following dialects do not fall under the above divisions : Arcadian (and the kindred Cyprian, which are often classed with Aeolic), Elean, and the dialects of N.W. Greece (Locris, Phocis, Aetolia, Acarnania, Epirus, etc.). N.W. Greek resembles Doric.
N. 6. — The dialects that retain a (30) are called A dialects (Aeolic, Doric, etc.); Ionic and Attic are the only H dialects. The Eastern dialects (Aeolic, Ionic) change ri to ai (115).
N. 7. — The local dialects, with the exception of Tzaconian (a Laconian idiom), died out gradually and ceased to exist by 300 a.d.
D. The chief dialects that occur in literature are as follows (almost all poetry is composed in a mixture of dialects):
Aeolic: in the Lesbian lyric poets Alcaeus and Sappho (600 b.c.). Numerous Aeolisms appear in epic poetry, and some in tragedy. Theocritus' idylls 28-30 are in Aeolic.
Doric : in many lyric poets, notably in Pindar (born 522 b.c.) ; in the bucolic (pastoral) poetry of Theocritus (about 310-about 245 b.c.). Both of these poets
adopt some epic and Aeolic forms. The choral parts of Attic tragedy also admit some Doric forms. There is no Doric, as there is no Aeolic, literary prose.