Invention of printing: 1439, Gutenberg’s Bible was printed in 1455
1482 the first mathematics book printed: Campanus of Novara's edition of Euclid's Elements.
In 1484 Chucke: used for
In 1646 Vieta, used for B(D2 + BD).
Mathematical Symbols “+”, “-“ and “=”: 1202 Fibonacci: “plus”, “minus”, 1556 Tartalia: p., m.
Sign + was first used in 1360 by N.Oresme, in 1489 J.Widman writes an arithmetic book in German which contains both signs + and - . They were also used in 1514 by V.Hoecke, and in 1542 by R.Recorde, who also used sign “=” in 1557. In 1631 William Oughtred (1575-1660) used symbols “×”, “/”, ”||”, sin, cos, and introduced logarithmic scale.
Michelangelo Buonarroti1475–1564 sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer; “Renaissance man”
Raphael 1483–1520 painter and architect
Cultural context: High Renaissance1490-1527 (since death of Lorenzo Medici till sack of Rome by Charles V)
1492 Christopher Columbus discovers "West Indies", 1499-1500 Amerigo Vespucci, 1519 Ferdinand Magellan
1494 Luca Pacioli (1445-1509) Franciscan friar, publishes Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalita which is a review of the whole of mathematics covering arithmetic, trigonometry, algebra, tables of moneys, weights and measures, games of chance, double-entry book-keeping and a summary of Euclid's geometry. Another book of Pacioli De divina proportione completed in 1496-98 was illustrated by his friend, Leonardo da Vinci. Pacioli was accused in plagiarism, because the content was mainly taken from the works of Piero della Francesca, without giving credits.