1337-1453 100 Years’ War in France; popular revolts in Flanders (1323-28), France (1356-58), England (1381)
1347-1350 Plague Black Death killed 35 million (1/3 of population) in Europe, epidemy repeated every 10 years
Religious Wars:Reformation, GreatPapal Schism1378-1418 (three rival Popes, each supported by some states)
Italian Renaissancestarted as a cultural movement in Florence in 14thcentury
Dante Alighieri (1265–1321) poet, the author of Divine Comedy, "the Father of the Italian language".
Francesco Petrarca (1304–1374) scholar and poet, a model for lyrical poetry and “Italian style”, “Father of Humanism”
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375) writer, poet, humanist, the author of The Decameron and On Famous Women
Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337) painter and architect, broke with “Byzantine style” and initiated “Renaissance style”
Math Ideas in 14th century
1321 Levi ben Gerson (Gersonides): Book of Numbers on arithmetical operations, permutations and combinations, 1342 De sinibus, chordis et arcubus (On Sines, Chords and Arcs): proves the sine theorem
1364 Nicole Oresme Latitudes of Forms an early version of coordinate system that may be influences Descartes
Nicole Oresme (1320-1382) most original thinker of XIV: philosopher, economist, astronomer, mechanic and math
Introduced an idea of graph of function, named coordinates lattitudo and longitude; for the graph of speed as function of time realized that the distance is the area; introduced an average speed.
Proved divergence of a harmonic series; used fractional powers of numbers.
Discussed possibility of rotation of Earth; incommensurability of lengths of day/month/year in a book of 1382 Le Livre du ciel et du monde (The Book of Heaven and Earth) he translated it from Latin to French by request of king Charles V
Quattrocento: Italian Renaissance of 15th cent.under patronage of Lorenzo de Medici 1449–1492, Lord of Florence
Leonardo da Vinci 1452–1519 polymath, a greatest painter, "Universal Genius", "Renaissance Man"