Early Middle Ages


Jordanus de Nemore (Nemorarius)



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1225 Jordanus de Nemore (Nemorarius): astronomy; in math an early algebraic notation with letters is used

1230 John of Holliwood (Johannes de Sacrobosco): arithmetic, astronomy and calendar reform

1260 Campanus of Navarra (chaplain to Pope): astronomy, Latin edition of Euclid’s Elements that became standard for 200 years

1274 Thomas Aquinas’ work “Summa Theologica’’ is published







Universitiesuniversitas magistorum et scholarium” (guild of professors and students) self-governed bodies, evolved from cathedrals and monastic schools and having “academic freedoms”, legal rights in towns granted by a special decrees of kings
1088 University of Bologna, specialization in Law, paid and governed by students, who were usually of a senior age

1117 University of Oxford: paid by the king, grew since 1167, after Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris,

1150 University of Paris (Sorbonne): paid by Church, governed by teachers, students start at age 13-14; model for other Universities

1209 University of Cambridge formed by academic who escaped from Oxford after a quarrel with the town administration









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