Early Middle Ages



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Anthemius of Tralles (474-534) and Isidorus of Miletus mathematicians and architects hired by Emperor Justinian to construct a new church of Hagia Sophia at Constantinople in 532-37, after it was destroyed by the Nika Riot. Isidorus taught at the universities of Alexandria and Constantinople, produced the first comprehensive compilation of Archimedes' work. Arthemius studied the focal properties of conics.



Alcuin of York (735-804) made York Cathedral School one of the most important European center of leaning, with the best library in Europe, in 775 writes elementary texts in arithmetic, geometry and astronomy, in 781 appointed head of Charlemagne’s Palace School at Aachen, developed Carolingian miniscule that replaced less readable unspaced capital script. Being a personal friend of Charlemagne became a teacher of his two sons.

Historical context: High Middle Ages refer to the period of 11th – 13th centuries: grows of population, developments of town, raise of culture, technology, inventions (windmill, mechanical clock, transparent glass, eyeglasses, 3-field rotation, horse collar, gunpowder).
11th century: Seljuk Empire is founded by Tughril Beg. The First Crusade (of nine): Jerusalem re-taken.

1206 Genghis Khan became Khagan, Mongol Empire, 1299 Osman I establish Ottoman Empire





Peter Abelard 1079–1142 philosopher and the first major logician of the Middle Ages "the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century". His lectures in Paris were extremely popular and crowded. He was condemned by Church and the king of France forbade to teach on his land, so he was teaching sitting on a tree and then from a boat. His affair with and love for Héloïse d'Argenteuil has become legendary.


Translation of scientific works from Arabic to Latin

1142 Adelard of Bath three translations of Euclid’s Elements, Alchorismi of Al-Khwārizmī, etc.

1144 Gherard of Cremona begins translating Ptolemy's Almagest and many other books

1145 Robert of Chester translated Liber algebrae et almucabola, of Al-Khwārizmī, etc.






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