Early Middle Ages



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Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz 1646-1716 polymath and philosopher, developed calculus (together with Newton), Leibniz's notation are in use nowadays. Inventor of mechanical calculators: added multiplication and division to Pascal's calculator, invented the Leibniz wheel, used in the arithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanical calculator. Worked on the binary number system, anticipated modern logic.

In philosophy, rationalist (along with René Descartes and Baruch Spinoza), Leibniz’s optimism: “our Universe is the best possible one that God could have created”.



In physics and technology anticipated some recent notions in philosophy, probability theory, biology, medicine, geology, psychology, linguistics, and computer science. His works on philosophy, politics, law, ethics, theology, history, and philology were scattered in various learned journals, in tens of thousands of letters, and in unpublished manuscripts (in several languages, but primarily in Latin, French, and German). There is no complete collected writings.

1660 entered Lepzig Univ. 1662 Bac, 1662 Ms. Phil., 1665 Bac in Law, 1666 Thesis in Phil. and Law, Book “On the Art of Combinations”, worked as salaried alchemist, diplomatic essays “To find a reason to appoint a German prince to the Polish Throne”, “To organize a union of German states against France”, “To involve France into a war with Turkey”, 1672 invited to Paris to discuss his “Egyptian plan” by French governement, met there Huygens and started studying Math, 1673 visited London to show his arithmometer (which he developped since 1670), 1674 invited by Duke of Brunswick, started developping Calculus, finished in 1677, but published only in 1682 in Acta Eruditorum (first scientific journal in Geman lands that he created), 1700 Berlin Academy of Science is created upon the advice of Leiniz and appointed him president (1701 Kingdom of Prussia is created), 1711 projects with Peter I, 1712 Vienna Court of Gabsburgs 1716: died out of favor: nobody from any Court and no Society (Royal or Berlin Acad. Sci) attended, grave went unmarked for 50 years.





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