Early Middle Ages



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Sir Isaac Newton 1642-1726 "natural philosopher" (physicist and mathematician), one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. Book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics: laws of motion, universal gravitation with derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion, with the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other phenomena, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the Solar System. Contributed to optics: built the first reflecting telescope, a theory of colour. Studied the speed of sound, stated an empirical law of cooling.

Math: credited with Leibniz for foundation of calculus: power series, the binomial theorem (with non-integer exponents), approximating the roots of a function, classification of the plane cubic curves.

Beyond the sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the biblical chronology (hermeneutics) and alchemy. Supposed that his biblical and occult studies were more important than scientific ones. Found big amont of mercury in the body after death (possibly because of alchemical experiments)/

1661-65 studied at Cambridge, 1665-66 work at home on calculus: power series, binomial theorem (1665-66 Great Plague of London, 100000~20% of population died, Cambridge closed, 1665 Great Fire of London), calculus manuscript written in 1666 was not published until 1693, and in the full account only in 1704

1667 Fellow of Trinity College (required to be a priest, Newton wanted to avoid because of non-orthodox believe) 1669 Lucasian Chair after Barrow quitted (avoided to be a priest by a special order by Charles V), 1684 “On the motion of bodies in orbits”, 1687 Principia, 1690 religious tracts, 1701 retied from Cambridge, 1705 knited (second scientist after Francis Bacon), 1711 priority dispute with Leibniz



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