René Descartes (Renatus Cartesius, adj. "Cartesian") 1596-1650: philosopher, mathematician, and scientist, “the father of modern western philosophy”, founder of rationalism, “ the father of analytical geometry”, giving a path to discovery of Calculus, one of the key figures in the scientific revolution. He spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic, died right after invitation to Sweeden. In 1633, Galileo was condemned by the Catholic Church, and Descartes abandoned plans to publish Treatise on the World, his work of the previous four years. In 1637 he published only a part of this work in three essays: Les Météores (The Meteors), La Dioptrique (Dioptrics) and La Géométrie (Geometry), preceded by an introduction, his famous Discours de la méthode (Discourse on the Method). Principles of Philosophy: published in 1647.