Early Human Study Guide Questions



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Early Human Study Guide Questions

  1. List the five early humans in chronological order

a. Australopithecus

b. Homo Habilis

c. Homo Erectus

d. Neanderthal

f. Cro-Magnon


  1. Which early human was the first to practice religion?

Cro- Magnon

  1. Who began using fire first? Homo Habilis began using fire first only from fires that were started from natural disasters. Fire was used for protection, to keep warm, and to cook food.

  2. Who learned how to make and control fire? Homo Erectus

  3. Name 3 reasons why fire was a useful tool to both early humans and ourselves. Protection, keep warm, to cook

  4. Who were the first early humans to create and use tools?

Homo Habilis


  1. Why didn’t Neandertal take care of the elderly as many of us do today? The elderly did not have a good chance of survival; many did not live to see their 40th b-day

  2. “Lucy” is the fossilized remains of what early human? Australopithecus

  3. What early human was nick-named “handy man? Why? Homo Habilis

  4. What nickname did we give Australopithecus? “Southern Ape”

  5. Which early human was the first to ceremonially bury their dead? Cro- Magnon

  6. What early human first used language? Neandertal

  7. Which early human made beautiful carvings from bone? Cro- Magnon

  8. Which early human lived entirely during the ice age? Neandertals

  9. What continent was the first early human discovered on? Africa

  10. What is the name of the oldest Australopithecine skeleton? Lucy

  11. What type of shelter did Cro-Magnon live in? caves and huts

  12. Why was Neanderthal’s body size crucial to their survival? Short, heavy bodies due to cold- less surface area to keep warm; their bones were bigger due to constant exercise

  13. List two tools the first early human used: (Australopithecus)

    1. Hands

    2. Sticks/rocks

  14. List two different tools the second early human used including the use and material (Homo Habilis)

a. hand axes/ stone, bone/ cutting, chopping

b. stone flakes/ stone/ cutting meat or wood; scraping off hide



  1. List two different tools the third early human used including the use and material (Homo Erectus)

a. fire- keep warm (able to live in any climate)

b. sharpened flakes/ rock, stone/ cutting meat or wood; scraping off hide



  1. List two different tools the fourth early human used including the use and material (Neandertal)

a. sharp flint/ sliced through animal skin

b. hand axes/stone, wood/ crush bones and cut wood

triangular points/ used like knives

spears- hunting




  1. List five different tools the last early human used including the use and material

a. harpoons- kill fish when meat was not plentiful

b. needles/ bone/ make clothes

c. flint

d. pierced seashells

e. antlers

(b through e: tools used for making clothing, engraving, and sculpting)




  1. What was “Lucy” named after? Beatles song “Lucy in the sky with diamonds”




  1. Which early human was anatomically identical to us, Homo sapien sapien? Cro- Magnon




  1. Where did the Australopithecus live? Eastern Africa




  1. Which early human lived 35,000 – 10,000 years ago? Cro- Magnon

  2. How tall were the Australopithecus? 3 ft tall

  3. Which early human made cave paintings? Neandertal

  4. What was the Australopithecus’ diet? vegetarians

  5. Name 5 traditions and discoveries that Cro Magnon made that Modern Humans still use today.

Make musical instruments

Make woven clothing

Buried their dead the way we do

Paint, engrave, sculpt, make shell jewelry



  1. What was the Australopithecine’s shelter? Rock overhangs, trees

  2. Why didn’t the first or second early human live in caves? Dangerous animals lived in the caves and they did not have the tools to kill them

  3. Which early human had huts, constructed of rocks, clay, bones, branches, and animal hide/fur? Cro-magnon

  4. Which early human stole caves from Neanderthal? Cro- magnon

  5. What four ways did the Homo habilis communicate? Body language, touch, grunt, facial expressions

  6. How did the Homo habilis get a fire going and keep it contained? Used fire caused from natural disasters

  7. What does Homo habilis mean? “Handy Man”

  8. Which 3 early humans lived during some or most of the ice age? Homo Erectus, Neandertal, Cro-Magnon

  9. Who were the only early humans to make and wear jewelry? Cro- magnon

  10. What stone did the Homo erectus use to make fire? Flint

  11. What was the first Early Human to cook their food? Homo Erectus




  1. Was the Homo erectus carnivores, omnivores, or herbivores? omnivores

  2. Who was the first to migrate out of Africa? Homo Erectus

  3. Which early human killed off the Neanderthal? Cro- magnon

  4. Did the Homo erectus have the ability to live in caves? Why or why not? Yes, since they had tools used to kill the animals living in them

  5. Which early human created the first calendar? Cro-magnon

  6. What did the Homo erectus use fire for? Cooking, protection, keeping warm

  7. What is Homo Erectus mean? “Upright man”

  8. What type of shelter did the Neandertals’ live in? caves

  9. What was the Cro-Magnon’s main shelter? What other type of shelter did they use? Main shelter- caves; other shelter- huts

  10. What made the Neandertals different from other early humans? First to use language; lived throughout the ice-age

  11. What did the Neandertals’ need to survive at night? Fire, clothing, caves

  12. 4/5 Neandertals’ didn’t see what? Their 40th birthday

  13. What type of human are you? Homo Sapiens Sapiens

  14. Which early human didn’t make tools? Australopithecus

  15. Which early human used the lavawa blade that was five times sharper than a surgeon’s scalpel and what was it used for?

  16. Which early human was the smartest? How do you know? Cro- Magnon; they started many of the traditions we still use today

  17. See above

  18. Where did the Cro-Magnon live? in caves or huts in France; bones found all over Europe

  19. Which early human was the first to wear clothes? Why? Neandertal’s because it was cold

  20. Which early human knew how to make woven clothing? Cro- Magnon

  21. Which early human was the first migrate out of the original continent? Which continents did they migrate to? Homo Erectus migrated to Asia and Europe

  22. Why was Neanderthal’s nose so big? The large nose created a lot of mucous which kept the nose from freezing




  1. Name at least 10 Cro-Magnon firsts.

    1. Wore woven clothing

    2. Listened to music

    3. Made musical instruments

    4. Decorated their bodies with jewelry

    5. Carved and sculpted with bone

    6. Made colored paintings

    7. Made musical instruments

    8. Made clay figurines

    9. Made shell jewelry

    10. Decorated tools, beads, ivory carvings

  2. Describe how the shelter changed from the first early human to the last. Include what the shelters were like and why they changed. Shelter began with Australopithecus using trees and tall grass. Then over time early humans became more intelligent and were able to use caves like Homo Erectus, Neanderthal, and Cro-magnon who could make fire, and had better tools



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