Early Civilizations persian charts



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citadels fortress protecting the city

  • Public bathing

  • Sewer system

  • Streets, organized and laid out on a grid system

  • Complex writing system, which has not been deciphered



  • ENVIRONMENTAL


    • Location

    • Physical

    • Human/environment

    • Migration/movement

    • Region

    • Demography

    • Neighborhood

    • Urbanization

    • Settlement patterns

    • Disease

    • Cities (2 major ones)




    • Located in modern-day Pakistan and parts of India

    • Emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E.

    • Irrigation systems to catch and control waters from the monsoons and rivers

    • Earthquakes, desertification, monsoons [seasonal winds] may have contributed to downfall

    • Harappa – Major urban complex of the Harappan civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern

    • Mohenjo Daro – Major urban complex of the Harappan

    Civilization; laid out on planned grid pattern


    SHANG CHINA:


    POLITICAL


    • Leaders/groups

    • Forms of government

    • Empires

    • State building/expansion

    • Political structures

    • Courts/laws

    • Nationalism/nations

    • Revolts/revolutions




    • Shang established kingdom that would lay the foundations of

    Chinese civilization with a centralized government needing to rule feuding villagers

    • Hereditary rulers or dynasties with power based on the ancestors and gods

    • Ruled by strong kings – seen as an intermediary between the

    supreme being and ordinary mortals (Shangdi; Shang = leader; di = high god of the rain cycles)

    responsibilities for the fertility of their kingdom and the well-being of their subjects

    • Sizeable bureaucracy

    • Peasant and artisan population governed by vassals who served

    the lords or kings bound to them by personal ties; introduced the system of feudalism

    • Not well-defined by fixed and clearly established boundaries

    ECONOMIC


    • Agricultural, pastoral

    • Economic systems

    • Labor systems/ organizations

    • Industrialization

    • Technology/industry

    • Capital/money

    • Business organizations




    • Shang collected tributes from agricultural areas; from the elites they got warriors, laborers, horses, and cattle; from the allies, they got food, soldiers, workers and help with state projects in return for protection; commoners sent tributes to elites, who held land as fiefs from the king (made payments with surplus crops)

    • Mining required large labor force

    • Shang kings controlled access to copper and tin and the production of bronze (limited access to potential enemies)

    • Commoners made labor payments or corvee; workers to royal workshops with bronze; others labored to clear and drain fields, build palaces, excavate tombs, or construct walls to protect towns

    RELIGIOUS


    • Belief systems/ teachings

    • Philosophy

    • Holy books

    • Conversion

    • Key figures

    • Deities




    • Polytheistic

    • Special ceremonies were performed

    • Priests served as oracles – sacred people who foretold the future through interpretations of animal bones cracked by heat

    • Reliance on shamans (priests) strongly influenced beliefs and

    behavior in Shang Era


    SOCIAL


    • Family/ kinship

    • Gender roles/relations

    • Social and economic classes

    • Racial/ ethnic factors

    • Entertainment

    • Lifestyles

    • “Haves” & “have nots”

    • Kings, lords, vassals, peasants

    • No independent priesthood to challenge power

    • Patriarchal society

    • Lords were recruited from ruling families and aristocratic classes

    • Vassals depended on the produce and labor of commoners

    • In return for grants of control over peasants, warrior aristocrats

    collected tribute which went to the monarch and his court

    • Vassals supplied soldiers for kings army and kept peace among

    the peasants

    • Did not construct monumental architecture; lived in simple houses built of mud and wood

    INTERACTIONS


    • War/conflict

    • Diplomacy/treaties

    • Alliances

    • Exchanges between individuals, groups, & empires/nations

    • Trade/commerce

    • Globalization




    • Developed in considerable isolation but had some land trade contacts with India and the Middle East

    • Copied chariots the Shang encountered along with horsed imported from central Asia

    • Temporary decline in civilization when invasion disrupted Shang society

    • Less of a break between river valley society and full development of classical civilization than other early civilizations




    ARTS


    • Art

    • Music

    • Writing/literature

    • Philosophy

    • Math

    • Science

    • Education

    • Architecture

    • Technology

    • Innovations

    • Transportation




    • Pottery making

    • Silk-making

    • Writing developed from scratches on bones to ideographic

    symbols (pictographic characters grouped together to create new

    concepts) writing came from oracle bones



    • Writing became the key to Chinese identity

    • Art- delicate designs with jade, stone, and ivory

    • Astronomy – developed a calendar

    • Metallurgy and copper casting technology for weaponry, ritual objects, drinking vessels, etc…

    ENVIRONMENTAL


    • Location

    • Physical

    • Human/environment

    • Migration/movement

    • Region

    • Demography

    • Neighborhood

    • Urbanization

    • Settlement patterns

    • Disease

    • Cities (2 major ones)




    • Located in East Asia

    • Along the Yellow River or the Huang He River in the north and the Yangzi River in the south

    • Irrigation

    • Fertile land, but prone to flooding

    • Annual floods and extensive flood plains were suitable for agriculture and the support of large populations

    • Capital moved as the frontier expanded and contracted; moved 6x before ending up in Anyang


    OLMECS:


    POLITICAL


    • Leaders/groups

    • Forms of government

    • Empires

    • State building/expansion

    • Political structures

    • Courts/laws

    • Nationalism/nations

    • Revolts/revolutions

    • Loose confederation of villages, scattered from the coast to the highlands and in large part nestled in river valleys and along the shores of swampy lakes

    • Villages = decentralized but had hundreds, possibly thousands of households apiece

    • Priestly class who made sure villagers adhered to highly ritualized practices

    • Those at the top of the hierarchy of chieftainships commanded villages scattered over larger areas; the larger the domain, the greater the ability to ship the produce of workshops and fields to the chief’s centers or priests’ capitals.

    ECONOMIC


    • Agricultural, pastoral

    • Economic systems

    • Labor systems/ organizations

    • Industrialization

    • Technology/industry

    • Capital/money

    • Business organizations

    • Many centuries of advancing agriculture based on the early cultivation of corn and the use of turkeys, dogs, and guinea pigs

    • Villages traded with each other

    • People paid taxes to rulers

    • Olmec = “Inhabitants in the land of rubber” – one of their main exports

    • Subsistence farmers who cultivated most of the foodstuffs needed by their villages, such as maize, beans, squash, and cacao, while shipping lightweight products such as ceramics and precious goods (jade, obsidian, or quetzal feathers) to other villages

    RELIGIOUS


    • Belief systems/ teachings

    • Philosophy

    • Holy books

    • Conversion

    • Key figures

    • Deities

    • Religious statues and icons blended human and animal subjects (snakes, jaguars, and crocodiles)

    • Worshipped the same gods

    • Precious goods (jade, obsidian, or quetzal feathers) used to create masks and ritual figurines for religious purposes

    • Devotional activities in all centers/cities

    • Shamans – humans who were believed to have special power to commune with the supernatural and the ability to transform themselves wholly or partly into beasts, such as the were-jaguar ( a being that was part man, part animal)

    • Ceremonial life revolved around agriculture and annual rainfalls

    • Major cities = athletic hubs with intricate ball courts for entertainment and devotion to the gods

    • Practiced human sacrifice, perhaps even with children

    SOCIAL


    • Family/ kinship

    • Gender roles/relations

    • Social and economic classes

    • Racial/ ethnic factors

    • Entertainment

    • Lifestyles

    • “Haves” & “have nots”

    • Many tiers of social ranking (unusual with an agrarian society)

    • Priestly class, raised and trained in the palaces of the major cities, directed the exchanges of sacred rituals objects between farming communities.

    • Ruling families helped in exchanging these objects and other immense resources, which gave credence to their claims of being descended from divine ancestors as well as adding to their fortunes by controlling the commerce in precious goods.

    • Chiefdoms supervised agrarian transactions among farmers, oversaw a class of artisans, and accepted tribute from inhabitants of their villages; set up specialized workshops run by foremen were craftworkers created various goods using precious resources

    • Probably had a merchant class who controlled imports and exports

    • Large peasant or farmer population

    • Ball Games – Intricate ball courts made room on the sidelines for fans to applaud and jeer at the sweating contestants, who struggled to bounce hard rubber balls off parallel side walls and their bodies and into a goal; noble players, bearing helmets and heavy padding, could touch the six-pound rubber ball only with their elbow, hips, knees, and buttocks, and were honored when they knocked the ball through the stationary stone hoop. Monuments appeared for famous ballplayers. Olmec archeological sites are now filled with the remains of game equipment and of the trophies awarded to the victors. Some trophies were buried in the tomb of a dead ruler so that he could play ball with the gods in the otherworld.

    INTERACTIONS


    • War/conflict

    • Diplomacy/treaties

    • Alliances

    • Exchanges between individuals, groups, & empires/nations

    • Trade/commerce

    • Globalization

    • Developed in total isolation of other early civilizations and could not benefit from cultural diffusion and technology

    • In 1500 B.C.E., residents from hundreds of hamlets started integrating themselves into a single culture to spread ideas beyond their heartland.

    • Increasing evidence that the Olmec practiced warfare to supply rulers with humans whose death and torture meant to ensure that the soil would b e fertile and the rains would continue

    • Exported rubber, cacao, pottery, ceramics, figurines, refined jaguar pelts, and crocodile skins throughout Mesoamerica

    • Disappeared without a trace in 400 B.C.E.; alters and massive heads were defaced and buried in La Venta, yet little evidence of a war , uprising, or other major event; other religious centers not destroyed but abandoned as Olmec systems collapsed

    • Olmec culture influenced later Indian civilizations in Central America (especially in religious and artistic areas)

    ARTS


    • Art

    • Music

    • Writing/literature

    • Philosophy

    • Math

    • Science

    • Education

    • Architecture

    • Technology

    • Innovations

    • Transportation




    • Lacked a writing system

    • Shared a common language

    • Colossal heads, some of which are 9 feet high and weigh up to 20 tons

    • Produced massive, pyramid-shaped religious monuments

    • Specialized buildings that featured massive earthen mounds, platforms, palaces, and capacious plazas

    • Artistic forms, such as jaguar sculptures and basalt thrones with semi-precious stones, such as jade

    • Accurate and impressive calendars (based on seasons and rainfall patterns that shaped the livelihoods of agrarian peoples) marked passage of seasons and generations

    ENVIRONMENTAL


    • Location

    • Physical

    • Human/environment

    • Migration/movement

    • Region

    • Demography

    • Neighborhood

    • Urbanization

    • Settlement patterns

    • Disease

    • Cities (2 major ones)

    • Central America between the highland plateaus of Central Mexico and the Gulf Coast around modern-day Veracruz

    • Primary cities (smaller in scale in comparison to other civilizations) were San Lorenzo, La Venta, and Tres Zapotes

    • Cities were religious and secular hubs for banding together the surrounding agricultural hamlets (smaller villages)

    • Successors built the first great city, Teotihuacan, in the Americas



    ERA: 8,000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.


    Chavin de Huantar

    POLITICAL

    • Leaders/groups

    • Forms of government

    • Empires

    • State building/expansion

    • Political structures

    • Courts/laws

    • Nationalism/nations

    • Human trophy heads indicate raiding, warfare and violence among local centers before about 900 B.C.E. when the village of Chavin became the focal point.

    • No Chavin Empire

    • Widespread religious cult that traveled on the back of a trading network provided economic and cultural integration to much of the Andes.

    ECONOMIC

    • Agricultural, pastoral

    • Economic systems

    • Labor systems/ organizations

    • Industrialization

    • Technology/industry

    • Capital/money

    • Business organizations

    • Situated on trade routes to both the coastal region to the west and the Amazon rain forest to the east

    • Andean trade routes spread religion and culture of the Chavin

    • Weavers produced elaborate textiles of both cotton and wool from llamas and alpacas.




    RELIGIOUS

    • Belief systems/ teachings

    • Philosophy

    • Holy books

    • Conversion

    • Key figures

    • Deities

    • Elaborate temple complex, including galleries hidden passageways, staircases, ventilation shafts, drainage canals, and distinctive carvings.

    • Artwork suggests religion drew ideas from both the desert coastal region and the rain forests.

    • Major deities were represented as jaguars, crocodiles, and snakes of the Amazon basin.

    • Shamans or priests likely made use of the San Pedro cactus for its hallucinogenic properties.

    SOCIAL

    • Family/ kinship

    • Gender roles/relations

    • Social and economic classes

    • Racial/ ethnic factors

    • Entertainment

    • Lifestyles

    INTERACTIONS

    • War/conflict

    • Diplomacy/treaties

    • Alliances

    • Exchanges between individuals, groups, & empires/nations

    • Trade/commerce

    • Chavin became a pilgrimage site and training center for initiates from distant centers.

    • Temple locations three or more weeks from Chavin by llama caravan were remodeled to resemble that of Chavin.

    ARTS

    • Art / Music

    • Writing/ Literature

    • Philosophy

    • Math / Science

    • Education

    • Architecture

    • Technology/ Innovations

    • Jaguar-human images and other artwork may reflect visions of religious leaders.

    • Chavin architecture, sculpture, pottery, religious images, and painted textiles were widely imitated within the region.

    • Intricate stone carvings

    • Experimentation with minerals led to the discovery of gold, silver, and copper metallurgy; fashioned metals into pieces of jewelry or other decorative items as well as tools

    ENVIRONMENTAL

    • Location

    • Physical

    • Human/environment

    • Migration/movement

    • Region

    • Demography

    • Neighborhood

    • Settlement patterns

    • Costal and highland regions of Peru

    • Village called Chavin de Huantar became the focus of a religious movement that soon swept through the area

    • Town of 2,000 to 3,000 by 750 B.C.E. but no real cities until after the Chavin disappear

    • Ceremonial centers of temples constructed in a characteristic U shape, associated with small-scale irrigation projects, and suggest the growing power of religion leaders.





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