Early Civilizations persian charts

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Ziggurats – Massive towers or pyramids usually associated with temple complexes; first monumental architecture of the civilization

  • Polytheistic; saw gods in many aspects of nature

  • Ideas about gods’ creation of the earth and punishment of humans

    influenced writers of the Old Testament

    • Belief in a gloomy afterlife of punishment (their version of hell)


    • Family/ kinship

    • Gender roles/relations

    • Social and economic classes

    • Racial/ ethnic factors

    • Entertainment

    • Lifestyles

    • “Haves” & “have nots”


    • War/conflict

    • Diplomacy/treaties

    • Alliances

    • Exchanges between individuals, groups, & empires/nations

    • Trade/commerce

    • Globalization

    • One of the few cases of a civilization developing from scratch (with no example to copy from)

    • Farming, because of irrigations, required considerable coordination

    among communities

    • Trained army; warfare vital to ensure supplies of slaves taken as prisoners

    • Region hard to defend – Sumerians fell to the Akkadians, who later fell to the Babylonians (who extended the empire).

    • Invasions of Semitic people from the south introduced language and

    began to dominate the region, they adopted the culture so key features of civilization persisted, but large political units declined in favor of small

    city-states or regional kingdoms.

    • Eventually invasions by Assyrians and Persians created large empires.


    • Art

    • Music

    • Writing/literature

    • Philosophy

    • Math

    • Science

    • Education

    • Architecture

    • Technology

    • Innovations

    • Transportation

    • Invented wheel for transportation

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