Early Civilization

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Mazzini- natinalistic thinker, began the fight for unifcation of Italy


Garabaldi – used guerilla warfare with his troop theRed Shirts, final unification of Italy 1871


Otto von Bismark- Germany needed “blood and iron” to unify (fighting and weapons)

Scramble for Africa- Europeans fight to get colonies as Africa is full of natural resources

Berlin Conference- meeting of European countries to decide how to “split up Africa” without asking African peoples

World War I

M.A.I.N. Causes

Militarinism – build up of armies and weapons

Alliances – smaller controls band together promising to fight

Imperialism – stronger countries take over weaker ones

Nationalism – countries feel pride for their people/cultures

Central Powers (Austria, Germany, Italy) vs. Triple Entente (Britain, France and later the USA)

Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand – spark that started WW1

Alsace & Lorraine – area of France , fought over it by Germany and France

Leaders for Britain-

, France

, Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm II

, United States - Wilson

Trench Warfare- muddy, nasty, resulted in stalemate(s)

New Technologies- machine guns, tanks, poisonous gas

Schlieffen Plan

Armistice- war stops, treaty signed Nov 11, 1918

Zimmerman Note- Germany tried to engage Mexico into fighting the US with promise Mexico would get its lands back from US (lost during US Mexican War)

Lusitania – cruise liner sank (by German U-Boat) killing hundreds, including Americans

Propaganda- exaggerated stories/pictures to persuade people to do something

Fourteen Points-Wilson’s ideas to prevent future wars, Congress did not pass

League of Nations- alliance of European countries, fore runner of NATO

Treaty of Versailles- sanctions taken against Germany…..see below


BLame – Germany would take full blame for the war

Reparations – Germany would pay monies to help rebuild other countries

Army Limited – Germany would not be allowed to build weapons or have a large army

Territory Lost- Germany lost significant amounts of land, including Alsace-Lorraine)

Europe Before and After WWI – creation of new countries

Russian Revolution- Monarchy overthrown, Bolsheviks take over (Communists)

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