Early Civilization

Sumer/Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent

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Sumer/Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent

Mesopotamia means – land between the rivers

Cuneiform – Sumer; first form of writing, wedge shaped, used stylus and wet clay tablets

Ziggurat – pyramid shaped structure used for worshipping (temple)

Tigris & Euphrates – 2 rivers in fertile crescent (Mesopotamia)

Silt- rich soil left after flooding


Hammurabi – developed 1st code of laws (harsh punishments)


Iron – 1st to use iron in tools and weapons


Cyrus – founded Persian Empire, conquered other lands, let new peoples keep their customs

Darius-built Royal Road, reformed government, built up military

Royal Road – built to move troops easier, built for defense


War-Like Nation


Alphabet – influenced our alphabet, was not in pictures

Purple Dye – used to color fabric

Nile – longest river in the world

Delta – Nile flows to the Mediterranean Sea (shaped like a triangle)

Cataracts – rocky areas of Nile River

Hieroglyphics – picture writing

Rosetta Stone – helped us decode and read hieroglyphics

Old Kingdom

Middle Kingdom

New Kingdom

Upper and Lower Egypt (Upper near Med Sea, Lower is the Southern part of Egypt)

Pyramids – used as tombs for royals, held anything they needed for after life

Papyrus – reeds used as paper for hieroglyphics

Mummification- wrapping of body, removal or organs to preserve body for after life

Pharaoh- Egyptian ruler considered to be a God

Menes – united Egypt

Hatshepsut,- female pharaoh

Ramses the Great-

Theocracy – government ruled by religious leaders

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