E2 a world Divided: Superpower Relations 1944-1990. Kq1 How successful was the bid for peaceful co-existence between the Superpowers 1953-63? The post Stalin thaw and the bid for peaceful co-existence: Khrushchev and the responses of Dulles


Activity 1 A : What is peaceful co-existence?



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Activity 1 A : What is peaceful co-existence?

Using Phillips p150-153 and Lightbody p35-36, explain what they describe as the emergence of peaceful co-existence. Summarise the line of argument and include brief quotes to illustrate.





Activity 1 B : What were the causes of peaceful co-existence (including what motivated Krushchev and the Soviet leadership to pursue peaceful co-existence)? Factors include I, E, Ind, AR and GP?

Conceptual factors impacting on the emergence of peaceful co-existence

America (USA)

Eisenhower, Dulles and the American leadership



Russia (USSR)

Krushchev and the Soviet leadership



Ideology. Democracy v Marxism (L 36 P 151)



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Economic. Capitalism v Communism (P 152-3, 161 )



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Role of Individuals (P149-52 )



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Arms Race and security (P 148-9, 153)



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Geo Political balance of power (P148-9 )



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Activity 1 B essay: Which of these ingredients is the most significant cause of peaceful co-existence?






Explore in pairs and then in a whole class discussion how these factors of peaceful co-existence are interlinked.



Using the knowledge and understanding that you have developed, answer the following question in as much detail as you can. You might find it helpful to use the thinking frame below.
How far was the bid for peaceful co-existence due to change in leadership of the Superpowers?
There are a number of causes of peaceful co-existence. It is important to understand that there are different views as to which of these are most significant, but what is agreed is that they all contributed and interlink to explain the emergence of peaceful co-existence.


  • It is important to acknowledge the range of causes of peaceful co-existence. For example..




  • However it is argued that the most significant cause of peaceful co-existence is..




  • It is important to recognise that these causes interlink. For example..






Activity 2 A; What was the impact of the role of individuals (including Eisenhower, Dulles and Krushchev) in these years 1953-55?


Role of individual

Describe and explain their contribution to peaceful co-existence.

Legacy of Stalin (L 36-37)



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Krushchev (L 38, P151 and 155)



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Eisenhower (P152-3)



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Dulles (P152)



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Activity 2 B; What progress was made in peaceful co-existence 1953-56? Using L p36-38 and 41-44, and P p153-155, complete your copy of the following table in order to identify the extent of co-operation or conflict 1953-55.


The nature of Superpower relations 1953-55

Co-operation

Conflict

Conciliatory rhetoric:


Hostile rhetoric:

Use of diplomacy/negotiations:


Limitations to diplomacy:

Reluctance to intervene in international incidents:


Intervention in international incidents:

Acceptance of others sphere of influence:


Conflict over sphere of influence:

Arms/military limitations:


Arms/military development:

Summary of relations 1953-55



Activity 3 A; What were the causes of the failure of peaceful co-existence (including Hungary, Paris summit, U2 incident, Vienna summit and continuing tensions in Berlin)? Factors include I, E, Ind, AR and GP?

Conceptual factors impacting on the emergence of peaceful co-existence

America (USA)

Eisenhower, Dulles and the American leadership



Russia (USSR)

Krushchev and the Soviet leadership



Ideology. Democracy v Marxism (L 41-2 P 159-60)



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Economic. Capitalism v Communism (P 161 )



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Role of Individuals (L 35, 41, 58 P148, 151-52 )



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Arms Race and security (L 42 P 161, 171-2)



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Geo Political balance of power (L 41-4, P 160 )



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Activity 3 B essay: Which of these ingredients is the most significant cause of the failure of peaceful co-existence?






Explore in pairs and then in a whole class discussion how these factors of peaceful co-existence are interlinked.



Using the knowledge and understanding that you have developed, answer the following question in as much detail as you can. You might find it helpful to use the thinking frame below.
How important to the failure of peaceful co-existence was the Arms Race?
There are a number of causes of the failure of peaceful co-existence. It is important to understand that there are different views as to which of these are most significant, but what is agreed is that they all contributed and interlink to explain the failure of peaceful co-existence.


  • It is important to acknowledge the range of causes of failure of peaceful co-existence. For example..




  • However it is argued that the most significant cause of failure of peaceful co-existence is..




  • It is important to recognise that these causes of failure or peaceful co-existence interlink. For example..






Activity 4 A; What was the impact of the role of individuals (including Eisenhower, Dulles and Krushchev) in these years?


Role of individual

Describe and explain their contribution to peaceful co-existence.

Krushchev (L 43 and 60, P156-7)



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Eisenhower (L42, 44-45)



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Dulles (L 42)



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Kennedy (L 56-60 P156-7)



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Activity 4 B; What progress was made in peaceful coexistence during these years 1956-63?
Using L p38-40 and 43-45, and P p155-58, complete your copy of the following table in order to identify the extent of co-operation or conflict 1956-63.


The nature of Superpower relations 1956-63

Co-operation

Conflict

Conciliatory rhetoric:


Hostile rhetoric:

Use of diplomacy/negotiations:


Limitations to diplomacy:

Reluctance to intervene in international incidents:


Intervention in international incidents:

Acceptance of others sphere of influence:


Conflict over sphere of influence:

Arms/military limitations:


Arms/military development:

Summary of relations 1956-63






(III) Thematic Analysis of wider context: What do the historians think and how does this develop my emerging interpretation?
i) How successful was the bid for peaceful co-existence between he Superpowers 1953-63?

ii) Analyse Lightbodys interpretation.


The reasons for the continuation of the Cold War have variably been interpreted as being due to the desire for supremacy by either the USA or the USSR, or because of misjudgements and insecurity, leading to a desire to contain the other.
Activity 5 – Divide yourself into two groups. One group should take the position that the bid for peaceful co-existence between the Superpowers was successful 1953-63, the second that it was unsuccessful.

Each group should prepare a five minute presentation according to the position you have been asked to take. Each group will be given a set of event cards for the period 1953-63, your group must spin these events according to their interpretation.




1953 Eisenhower “New Look” defence policy.

1953 Soviet policy of Peaceful Co-existence.

1953 Soviet H bomb










1953 Soviet suppression of protest in Berlin and East Germany.

1953 Korean War armistice

1954 Austrian State Treaty.










1954 Eisenhower Domino Theory

The formation of SEATO

1954 formation of the Warsaw Pact










1955 Geneva Summit

1955 West Germany rearmed and admitted into NATO

1956 The Hungarian Rising










1957 Eisenhower Doctrine extended military alliances to the Middle East states and others.

1957 The Soviet launch of Sputnik

1958 the creation of CENTO (US/Middle Eastern states alliance)










1958 the formation of NASA

1959 Camp David Summit

1960 U2 spy plane incident










1961 Berlin crises and the beginning of the wall

1962 Cuban Missile crisis

1963 Presidential hotline











Activity 6 – Analyse Lightbodys interpretation of peaceful co-existence by reading his essay on the extent to which it introduced a thaw into the Cold War 1953-63 p36-41. Contrast this with the views of Gaddis and McCauley and begin to think about your own evolving interpretation.


Activity 7 – Analyse Lightbodys interpretation of peaceful co-existence by reading his essay on why peaceful co-existence did not succeed in ending the Cold War 1953-63 p41-45. Contrast this with the views of Gaddis and McCauley and begin to think about your own evolving interpretation.

Cracking the Puzzle- Preparing for Assessment




  1. Revisit the living graph. Consider whether the line you previously plotted for nature of relations between the Superpowers in the period 1953-63, accurately reflects you emerging interpretation. If not, adjust it.




  1. Complete Trigger Memory Activity 1953-63 using your background notes. An explanation on how to complete this is in your guidance booklet.




  1. There are many excellent Cold War websites which can be used to revisit the material covered so far. These include -


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/suez.htm
http://www.coldwar.org/
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/ColdWar.htm
http://www.academicinfo.net/histcold.html
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=topics.home&topic_id=1409
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/coldwarfiles/index.cfm?fuseaction=resources.detail&thisunit=0&resourceid=9
Use these websites to gather contemporary documents for the period.


  1. As a class, design and play a game for the Game Show Presenter Game called Brinkmanship.




  1. Revisit the examination criteria and advice on tackling the examination questions given in the guidance booklet.




  1. Apply these techniques to the specimen examination. You may be asked to work individually, in pairs or in group








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