A. an adaptation of an organism to its environment B. a sudden replacement of one community by another
C. a geographic or reproductive isolation of organisms D. a process of change in organisms over a period of time
3. Organisms with favorable variations reproduce more successfully than organisms with less favorable variations. This statement best describes the concept of:
A. overproduction B. use and disuse b. inheritance of acquired characteristics d. survival of the fittest
4. Evolution refers to change over a long period of time in:
A. fossil B. a population C. a rock d. an embryo
5. Charles Darwin proposed that organisms produce many more offspring that can possibly survive on the limited amount of resources available to them. According to Darwin, the offspring most likely to survive are those that:
A. are born first and grow fastest B. are largest and most aggressive
C. are best adapted to the environment D. have no natural predators
6. A large population of cockroaches was sprayed with an insecticide. A few of the cockroaches survived and produced a population of cockroaches that was resistant to this spray. What can best be inferred from this example?
A. A species will adapt no matter what the environment.
B. The environment has no effect on the survival of an organism.
C. Insecticides cause mutations that are passed on to the next generation.
D. Individuals with favorable variations survive and reproduce.
7. Which best describes the first unicellular organisms on Earth?
A. aerobic and eukaryotic B. anaerobic and prokaryotic C. anaerobic and eukaryotic D. aerobic and prokaryotic
8. Which statement is part of the heterotroph hypothesis?
10. Which best explains the theory of spontaneous generation?
A. Living organisms were produced through chemical reactions.
B. Living organisms originated from nonliving materials.
C. Living organisms originated from other living organisms.
D. Living organisms began when lightning produced amino acids.
11. Francesco Redi performed an experiment in 1668. In the experiment, he placed rotting meat in two jars. The first jar was left open. After a few days, fly larvae were found on the decaying meat inside. The mouth of the second jar was covered with gauze. After a few days, the decaying meat inside was free of fly larvae, but larvae were found on the gauze. This experiment supports the hypothesis that…