E volution Notes

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volution Notes

  • ___________________________: life from non-living things

__________________________ generation
Who disproved spontaneous generation and how?

  1. ___________________________________:

  • In 1668, used ____________ and _____________ in his experiment to show that flies did not come from meat but from ______________ (baby flies)

  1. ___________________________________:

  • Disproved spontaneous generation once and for all

  • Filled S-shaped flasks with __________

  • Boiled the broth to kill any microorganisms already in the broth and in the air

  • Found no life after 1 year

The Heterotroph Hypothesis

  • Early earth organisms:

    • ____________________: simple organisms

    • ____________________: no oxygen in atmosphere

    • ____________________: take in nutrients

  • Once oxygen production occurred, ________________ prokaryotes developed

  • Large heterotrophic cells consumed small cells as food

  • ______________________ hypothesis  symbiotic relationship between large and small cells developed

    • small cells became _______________________ and ___________________ with their own __________

Natural Selection

  • Charles ______________ – traveled to Galapagos Islands

  • Proposed that new species could develop by __________________________________

      • Process:

    • _______________________ in populations leads to _________________________________________

    • ___________________ of traits leads to different _____________________________

    • _____________________ for limited resources leads to _________________ and _________________

    • ___________________________________________ (_________________________________) leads to higher reproductive success


    • Any _________________ trait that suits an organism to its natural function in the ___________________________ (niche)

    • ______________________ adaptations

  • Mimicry and camouflage

    • ______________________ adaptations

    • ______________________ adaptations

  • Enzymes, sight, oxygen-binding of hemoglobin

Practice EOC Questions

1. According to natural selection, organisms considered fit will survive to accomplish which?

A. have more genetic mutations B. reproduce and pass on genes C.have a larger territory D. migrate to other areas

2. Which phrase best defines evolution?

A. an adaptation of an organism to its environment B. a sudden replacement of one community by another

C. a geographic or reproductive isolation of organisms D. a process of change in organisms over a period of time
3. Organisms with favorable variations reproduce more successfully than organisms with less favorable variations. This statement best describes the concept of:

A. overproduction B. use and disuse b. inheritance of acquired characteristics d. survival of the fittest

4. Evolution refers to change over a long period of time in:

A. fossil B. a population C. a rock d. an embryo

5. Charles Darwin proposed that organisms produce many more offspring that can possibly survive on the limited amount of resources available to them. According to Darwin, the offspring most likely to survive are those that:

A. are born first and grow fastest B. are largest and most aggressive

C. are best adapted to the environment D. have no natural predators
6. A large population of cockroaches was sprayed with an insecticide. A few of the cockroaches survived and produced a population of cockroaches that was resistant to this spray. What can best be inferred from this example?

A. A species will adapt no matter what the environment.

B. The environment has no effect on the survival of an organism.

C. Insecticides cause mutations that are passed on to the next generation.

D. Individuals with favorable variations survive and reproduce.
7. Which best describes the first unicellular organisms on Earth?

A. aerobic and eukaryotic B. anaerobic and prokaryotic C. anaerobic and eukaryotic D. aerobic and prokaryotic

8. Which statement is part of the heterotroph hypothesis?

A. heterotrophs evolved before autotrophs

B. aerobes evolved before anaerobes

C. atmospheric oxygen was present before carbon dioxide

D. proteins were present before amino acids

      1. How do scientists explain the increase in oxygen in Earth’s early atmosphere?

  1. Microbes produced oxygen through photosynthesis.

  2. Ozone was dissolved, creating free oxygen in the atmosphere.

  3. Greenhouse gas molecules were separated into atmospheric oxygen.

  4. Water condensed as the Earth cooled, creating water-filled depressions.

10. Which best explains the theory of spontaneous generation?

A. Living organisms were produced through chemical reactions.

B. Living organisms originated from nonliving materials.

C. Living organisms originated from other living organisms.

D. Living organisms began when lightning produced amino acids.
11. Francesco Redi performed an experiment in 1668. In the experiment, he placed rotting meat in two jars. The first jar was left open. After a few days, fly larvae were found on the decaying meat inside. The mouth of the second jar was covered with gauze. After a few days, the decaying meat inside was free of fly larvae, but larvae were found on the gauze. This experiment supports the hypothesis that…

A. adult flies are not attraced to decaying meat

B. fly larvae (eggs) prefer fresh meat

C. fly larvae (eggs) only come from adult flies

D. decaying meat produces fly larvae (eggs)

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