Dsc4012 – Terrorism Chapter 7 Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism Dr. E. Buchholz Learning Objectives: Chapter 7



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DSC4012 – Terrorism

Chapter 7 - Nationalistic and Endemic Terrorism

Dr. E. Buchholz
Learning Objectives: Chapter 7

  • Summarize the EOKA revolt on Cyprus, FLN in Algeria, and Mau Mau in Kenya.

  • Explain the danger posed by Russia’s breakaway states.

  • Describe the political and security issues surrounding violence in Chechnya.


Learning Objectives: Chapter 7

  • Summarize the terrorist issues facing Turkey.

  • Describe ethnic tensions in China’s Xinjiang province.

  • Explain the rationale behind China’s policy toward Uighar separatism.

  • Briefly summarize Sikh separatism in India.


Learning Objectives: Chapter 7

  • Define the term endemic terrorism.

  • Explain the relative importance of terrorism in light of Africa’s other issues.

  • Summarize political conditions in western and central Africa.


CYPRUS 1955–1959

  • UK claimed Cyprus as a crown colony after World War I and established its Middle East military headquarters

  • Georgios Grivas created the Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (National Organization of Cypriot Fighters or EOKA) to overthrow the British government, which had occupied Cyprus since WWI.

    • A series of attacks began in April 1955.

    • Clandestine campaign of violence.

    • Wanted to tie up large numbers of troops in an urban environment.


CYPRUS 1955–1959

  • In response to pressure from international allies, British citizens, the United Kingdom bartered a deal with the EOKA in 1959

  • Received independence, but not unify with Greece.

  • Eventually the Greek and Turk communities were partitioned.


THE BATTLE FOR ALGIERS
1954–1962


  • France invaded and occupied parts of North Africa in the 19th century

  • France directly incorporated the northern part of Algiers and administered it

    • The majority of Algerians deeply resented the loss of ethnic autonomy

    • The Algerian National Liberation Front, FLN, was formed and its purpose was violent revolution (blind terrorism)



THE BATTLE FOR ALGIERS
1954–1962


  • The FLN began its campaign in 1954, launching 70 clandestine attacks

    • Massacred entire groups of colonial families

      • Slit the throats of the victims

    • FLN stuffed women’s handbags with explosives and they frequently targeted places with large numbers of French youth

  • French responded with crackdown on Algerian population

    • Mass arrests and torture


THE BATTLE FOR ALGIERS
1954–1962


  • Algeria received independence in 1962 as counterterrorist tactics drove Algerian sympathy toward the FLN and French citizens lost their taste for a dirty war


THE MAU MAU IN KENYA
1950–1960


  • Rumors of a violent movement taking place in the Kikuyu tribal area

  • Rebel Kikuyas began assembling in the forests of western Kenya around 1950

    • Fueled by anger over loss of land, they began burning fields of European farmers


THE MAU MAU IN KENYA
1950–1960


  • Differences between Mau Mau movement and previous revolts in Algeria and Cyprus

    • Based in rural areas

    • Mau Mau was based on tribal rites and ceremonies

    • Violence was frequently typified by massacres

    • Overwhelming British military and police response with massive detainment and torture

    • Mau Mau insurgents suffered the brunt of casualties

    • Repression destroyed Mau Mau


THE MAU MAU IN KENYA
1950–1960


  • Mau Mau movement failed in the field

  • Governmental policy was ruthless

    • Over 90,000 Mau Mau suspects were interned during the state of emergency

    • Conditions of custody were appalling

    • Thousands of suspects were tortured

  • Kenya would gain its independence, and a former suspected Mau Mau exile would become its president

Breakaway States and Crime

  • Russia still suffers from environmental troubles, a poor health system, and sharp declines in life expectancy.

    • It also suffers from organized crime and corruption.

  • The former Soviet Union broke into fifteen new nations in the early 1990s—The Russian Federation


Breakaway States and Crime

  • Five states declared their independence

    • Nargorno-Karabakh

    • South Ossetia

    • Abkhazia

    • Transnistria

    • Chechnya

  • Chechnya is the only one whose claim to independence Russia has been successful in countering, but fighting continues to rage there.

  • Although jihadists have come to the area, the actual problem is one of nationalism.


Chechnya

  • Guerrillas and terrorists in the Russian-controlled province of Chechnya called on nationalism in a struggle for autonomy

  • Although Russia has been able to assert more control in Chechnya than in other breakaway states, Chechnya has experienced savage fighting and terrorism


Chechnya as a Nationalistic Revolt

  • Chechens seek legitimacy in the nationalistic struggle

  • The current dispute can be traced directly to the communist era when Joseph Stalin imposed Soviet power in the region

  • Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russians and Chechens have fought two conventional wars for control of the area


Chechnya as a Nationalistic Revolt

  • Shamil Basayev

    • Planned the takeover of a Moscow theatre in 2002 and Beslan school in 2004

  • ibn al Khattab

  • Salman Raduyev

    • Took more hostages than any other terrorists

    • Went mad


Chechnya as a Nationalistic Revolt

  • About 50 Chechen rebels, including Black Widows, took over Moscow Theatrical Center during an evening performance

  • They took 700 people hostage

  • Before Russian forces had restored order, about 200 people were dead, many killed by the sleeping gas

(See p. 173)

TURKEY’S STRUGGLE WITH TERRORISM

  • Turkey has suffered 40,000 deaths from terrorism since 1980

  • In 1994, several thousand Turkish young people began to attend militant private religious schools in Pakistan

  • Pakistani-trained young people eventually resulted in a jihadist movement in Turkey lead by Habib Akdas


Al Qaeda in Turkey

  • Beginning in 1994, Turkish youths began to attend militant madrassas—private religious schools—in Pakistan

  • They returned to Turkey with a Islamic agenda

  • Led to jihadist movement led by al Qaeda splinter group El Kaide Turka (al Qaeda in Turkey)

  • Habib Akdas led the charge

  • Attacked British consulate

  • Killed in 2004


Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK)

  • Kurds are an ethnic group inhabiting parts of southern Turkey, northern Iraq, and northern Iran

  • The PKK targets Europeans, Turks, rival Kurds, and Turkish government supporters

  • By 1990, PKK leaders stated that they would strike only “legitimate” Turkish targets and began to speak of nationalism


The Kurdish Conflict

  • When other groups received national sovereignty at the end of World War I, the Kurds remained divided among the three nations

  • PKK turned to urban terrorism, targeting Turks throughout Europe and Turkey in the 1990s

  • After years of challenges, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the PKK is a foreign terrorist group, thus a federal crime to support it.


Abdulah Ocalan

  • Leader of the PKK

  • Wanted semiautonomy for the Kurds

  • Shifted position from “scientific socialism” to Marxist Islam to achieve the greatest support.

  • Although the Kurds have long been victims of oppression, the PKK is a terrorist organization, which overshadows Kurds’ struggle for nationalism.


Abdulah Ocalan

  • 1999, Turks captured Ocalan in Kenya and sentenced him to death.

  • Members of the EU may not invoke capital punishment. As Turkey was lobbying to join the EU, it reversed the death sentence.

  • 2006, Ocalan ordered the end of a suicide bombing campaign and called for peace between Turkey and the Kurds.

CHINA’S PROBLEM IN XINJIANG

  • The Uighars are ethnic Turkmen and they have lived in and governed parts of the Xinjiang province for 200 years

  • The Chinese have settled the area with ethnic Chinese, displacing the Uighars

  • China fights for Xinjiang because it has China’s largest oil and gas reserves


Sikh Separatism in India

  • After India was partitioned in 1947, some Sikhs sought independence in Punjab

  • In 1984, Indian military forces entered the Sikhs’ most sacred site and engaged in a bloody battle with armed militants

  • By 1988, more than a hundred people per month had lost their lives


Sub-Sahara Africa

  • Endemic terrorism

    • Form of terrorism created by artificial divisions of tribes, families, and ethnic groups

  • Unique brand of terrorism

    • Ethnic cleansing

    • Child armies

    • Wars by self-appointed militias

    • Crime and corruption

    • Internal strife


Sources of African Terrorism

  • Terrorism is only one problem among many others in Africa:

    • AIDS Pandemic

    • Most poverty-stricken region on earth

    • Thousands of homeless orphans

    • Genocide

    • Women and children exploitation

    • Child armies

    • Slavery

    • Starvation


Lord’s Resistance Army

  • Joseph Kony, self appointed militia leader

  • Has conscripted thousands of children, forcing them to fight

  • Roams through Uganda, southern Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central Africa Republic

  • Primary tactics mass murder mass rape, theft, and enslavement of children

The rebels are known for abducting tens of thousands of children, killings and brutalities like the chopping off lips, legs and arms of innocent civilians. The rebels' excuses for these atrocities have always been that the civilians are betraying them by reporting their presence to the government army and therefore deserving the atrocities.


Oil Regions

  • Oil fields in Sub-Sahara Africa are attractive to the United States:

  • “Sweet Crude”

    • Oil has a lower concentration of sulfur, and it is easier and cheaper to refine into gasoline

    • Oil fields are closer to the east coast of the United States than the Middle East

    • Africa is increasing its oil production


Oil Regions

  • Terrorism has not been a major issue, but should be viewed as a potential problem

  • U.S. foreign policy misses areas where jihadists have tremendous potential

    • Countries like Nigeria and Liberia appear on the strategic foreign policy radar screen

    • Liberia presents another example of misguided U.S. policy

      • Instead of intervening, the U.S. took the posture of providing humanitarian aid, and the state feel creating a haven for terrorist groups




  • “Big Man”

    • An important person in a tribe or clan.

    • An autocratic ruler.

    • U.S. often allies with governments that support antiterrorist activities even if they have poor human rights records

  • Kenya

    • U.S. military uses its ports

    • U.S. government entities are housed there

  • Sub-saharan Africa

    • British has maintained a humanitarian approach to Africa

    • U.S. has had a security approach

    • Chapter Take Aways

  • Quite a bit of nationalistic terrorism came in the wake of World War II as European colonial empires began to break apart.

  • Cyprus and Algeria became the forerunners of urban ideological terrorism.


Chapter Take Aways

  • Kenya served as the stage for a quasi-religious uprising, and although the Kenyans would eventually win independence, it people were brutally repressed during the Mau Mau rebellion.

Chapter Take Aways

  • Terrorism continued to evolve in nationalistic, ethnic, and religious movements in Russia, break-away semi-autonomous states in the former Soviet Union, Turkey, China, and India.

  • Africa has experienced endemic terrorism due to artificial national boundaries imposed by Europeans.

  • While terrorism is a horrendous problem, poverty and the AIDs crisis have been the cause of most of Africa’s suffering.

2.24.14



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