Utopia - An ideal place free of greed, war, and conflict.
Printing Press -a machine for reproducing writing by pressing paper against inked type Objectives: Students will be able to analyze historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation by tracing Martin Luther’s role in the religious movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church. 1. Notes:
A. indulgences: pardons that release one from performing a penalty for sins
B. recant: to take back one’s statements
C. Lutheran: a religious group based on Luther’s ideas and teachings
2. In 1517, Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the church door in Germany.
Cause: He attacked the Church’s policy of selling of indulgences.
Effect: Luther’s words were spread all over Germany
3. In 1520, Luther is excommunicated. In 1521, he is declared an outlaw/heretic.
Cause: The pope realized that Luther was a serious threat to papal authority.
Effects: Luther translated the New Testament into German.
4. The German peasants revolt in 1524.
Causes: They were excited by talk of Christian freedom/social freedom by demanding an end to serfdom.
Effects: When the armies of the German princes crushed the revolt
5. The Peace of Augsburg is signed in 1555.
Causes: The Holy Roman Emperor defeated the German Protestant princes Effects: The settlement ended the war/allowed the ruler of each German state to decide his state’s religion.
6. The English Parliament approves the Act of Supremacy in 1534.
Causes: Henry VIII needed to annul his marriage to Catherine.
Efects: The act made the king the head of England’s church.
7. Parliament establishes the Anglican Church in 1559.
Causes: Elizabeth I asked Parliament to set up a national church.
Efects: The Anglican Church became the only legal church in England.
1.3 Luther Starts the Reformation 1. l
12. l B. Some princes may have stayed loyal to the pope because it seemed the safest thing to do. Others probably sincerely believed that the pope was God’s messenger. Others may simply have wanted to align themselves with Charles V, who was strongly supportive of the pope. Some princes may have opposed the pope due to a sincere belief in Luther’s ideas, such as the concept of salvation through faith. Others undoubtedly longed for the local control that breaking with the Church seemed to offer them. Opposing the pope gave them justification for seizing Church property. 1.2 World History HISTORYMAKERS Elizabeth I
1. She showed her cleverness in leadership by entertaining marriage offers and not accepting them. She also showed fairness in her treatment of Catholics.
2. Elizabeth was a desirable match because marrying her gave her husband a chance to control England.
3. Her support for captains who raided Spanish treasure ships and English support for Dutch independence helped lead to the attack. Summary: In today’s lesson, we analyzed the historical forces and religious issues that sparked the Reformation. We also traced Martin Luther’s role in the religious movement to reform the Catholic Church. Homework: Indulgences & Heretic
Indulgences: pardons that release one from performing a penalty for sins
Heretic: one who is outside of the Church Name ____________________________________Class ___________Date_______________
1.3 Luther Starts the Reformation
A. Terms and Names Write the letter of the term or name that best answers the question. A term or name may be used more than once or not at all.
______ 1. Who was the last of Henry VIII’s children to rule England?
______ 2. Which official measure made the king, instead of the pope, the head of the English Church?
______ 3. Who was the wife of a king of England, the mother of a queen of England, and the aunt of an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire?
______ 4. Whom did Henry VIII want to marry badly enough to prompt his break with the Roman Catholic Church and the pope?
______ 5. Which term originally referred to a German prince who was not loyal to the pope?
______ 6. Which term means “to take back a statement”?
______ 7. Who was the first of Henry VIII’s children to rule England?
______ 8. Which official measure made it a crime to give Martin Luther food or shelter?
______ 9. Which term refers to a pardon that releases a sinner from a penalty for committing a sin?
______10. Who was beheaded after being unable to produce a male heir for Henry VIII?
______11. Which term means “to set aside”?
______12. Who ruled England for nearly 45 years?
B. Critical Thinking Briefly answer the following question on the back of this paper. Why do you think some of the German princes supported the pope while others supported Luther’s ideas?
1.3 WOLD HISTORYMAKERS Elizabeth I-Gloriana
“It is my desire to live nor reign no longer than my life and reign shall be for your good. And though you have had, and may have, many princes more mighty and wise sitting in this seat, yet you never had, nor shall have, any that will be more careful and loving.”—Elizabeth, addressing Parliament (1601)
Called “Gloriana,” Elizabeth I, the new queen of England in 1558, ushered in a period of unmatched artistic growth and political achievements. She survived a difficult childhood to reach the throne at age 25. She patched over religious differences, skillfully manipulated other rulers who sought her hand in marriage, helped guide England past a serious foreign threat, and presided over a period of intellectual and artistic flowering. She became a magnificent symbol of England’s rise.
The daughter of Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, Elizabeth was forced to grow up fast in an unstable and dangerous court. When she was not yet three years old, her father accused her mother of conspiracy and had Anne Boleyn executed. Elizabeth, like her older half-sister Mary, was declared illegitimate. In 1544, Elizabeth was named third in line to the throne, but her troubles did not go away.
She was suspected of being involved in a plot against her half-brother Edward when he became king. She responded well to tough questions, though, and her innocence was accepted. After Edward’s death, Mary became queen. She was Catholic, and became suspicious of Elizabeth, who was Protestant. Once again, Elizabeth was wrongly accused of plotting against the crown. She was arrested and placed in the Tower of London but was released two months later. In 1558, Mary died, and Elizabeth was crowned queen. Elizabeth inherited a miserable situation in England. One contemporary described the state in
1.3 WOLD HISTORYMAKERS Elizabeth I-Gloriana
hopeless terms: “The queen poor. The realm exhausted. The nobility poor and decayed. . . . The people out of order. Justice not executed.”
However, her reign reversed these trends and revived the English spirit. In the first decades of Elizabeth’s rule, she played a skillful game of cat-and-mouse with the powerful nobles of Europe, who wanted to marry her and win control of England. She entertained several possible husbands, changing her course as she believed was best for English policy. In the end, she frustrated all suitors and never married. While her policy ensured the independence of England, it was risky. If she died unexpectedly, a struggle for the throne was bound to result. Elizabeth also attempted to heal the religious differences that plagued England.
In 1559, she persuaded Parliament to approve a law that made England Protestant but that also gave some concessions to Catholics. Though laws against Catholic practices grew stricter under her rule, she managed to lighten them in practice. In the 1580s, England drifted toward war with Spain. Elizabeth allowed English sea captains to plunder Spanish ships bringing gold and silver from the New World. She also sent aid and English troops to the areas of the Netherlands that were fighting to win independence from Spain.
In 1588, Philip II of Spain launched a huge fleet, the Armada, against England. England’s faster ships out-sailed the Spanish fleet and inflicted heavy damage on them. A severe storm destroyed many Spanish ships and helped defeat the Armada. In Elizabeth’s later years, England suffered other problems. The Irish, encouraged by Spain, rebelled against English control. These wars and the defeat of the Armada drained the treasury. The economy weakened. Nobles and government officials jockeyed for power and influence.
During this time, however, English writers produced an out-pouring of poems, plays, and other works that showed great creativity and skill. The queen, now 70, finally weakened and died in 1603.
1. Making Inferences-What actions do you think demonstrated that Elizabeth was both a clever and fair ruler? Explain.
2. Drawing Conclusions-Why was Elizabeth such a desirable match in marriage?
3. Recognizing Facts and Details- What policies led to conflict with Spain?