Daimyos - Japanese warlords Objectives: Students will be able to describe the Spanish conquest of the Americas beginning with Columbus; to describe the conquest of the Aztec and Inca by the Spanish by researching the effects of Spanish colonization on the Americas.
1. Conquistadores: Spanish soldiers, conquerors
2. Mestizo: person of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry
3. Encomienda: system of forced labor under which Native Americans were forced to work for Spanish landlords
4. 1492 Christopher Columbus sails westward from Spain, hoping to reach Asia.
The voyages began the process of European colonization of the Americas.
5. 1519 Ferdinand Magellan sets sail on a voyage that rounds the southern tip of South America. Magellan himself died in the Philippines but his ship and crew
became the first to sail around the world.
6. 1521 Hernán Cortés conquers the Aztec.
Conquistadors had superior weaponry; aid of some groups of natives;
7. 1533 Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca Empire.
Conquistadors intermarried, imposed their culture, and exploited Native Americans as laborers.
8. 1540 Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explores the Southwest and the lands of New Mexico. Mainly Catholic priests explored and colonized much of the region.
9. 1542 Spain abolishes the encomienda system, replacement of Native American forced labor with African forced labor, enslavement of Africans
Odds & Ends
1. Inca & Aztec are people of Mexico & greatly out numbered the Spanish.
2. Contagious disease was probably the chief weapon the Spanish had.
3. Spanish had superior weaponry and, more importantly, disease.
4. Once the Spanish had glimpsed the wealth available to them, no threat would have stopped them.
5. If Spanish had not completely conquered these civilizations, they would have carried home to Spain tales of American wealth. Later Spanish voyages would have completed the destruction begun earlier.
8. true BCR: We feel that natives could have successfully defended their civilizations could point out that
a. Native Americans greatly out numbered the Spanish. b. disease was probably the chief weapon the Spanish had. Greater suspicion of the first Spanish to arrive would have kept them at a distance and protected Native Americans from contagion. c. if all of the Spanish had been killed, perhaps after tricking them into feeling safe as the Spanish did to the Incas, there might not have been later voyages, at least for quite awhile. Students who feel that natives could not have successfully defended their civilizations could point out that
1. Gold was Columbus’s main interest because the purpose of the voyage is to gain more wealth for Spain.
2. I was impressed by many of the following: the actions and feelings expressed by all parties at the historic meeting; the description of the Taino; Columbus’s observations and thoughts about the Taino; the character of Columbus as revealed in his observations and thoughts.
3. Columbus reveals a superior attitude toward the Taino, although he seems to be fair and at times respectful in his descriptions. He basically considers them servants. He also assumes they cannot talk, possibly because they do not talk to him. Summary: In today’s lesson wedescribe the Spanish conquest of the Americas beginning with Columbus and the conquest of the Aztec and Inca by the Spanish.
Homework: Conquistadors & Aztec
Conquistadors: Spanish soldiers, conquerors
Aztec are native people of Mexico
4.1 Spanish Conquests in the Americas
A. Terms and Names If the statement is true, write “true” on the line. If it is false, change the underlined word or words to make it true.
Example: In 1680, Popé led a successful revolt against the Spanish. True
Example: As a result of Popé’s uprising, the Apache regained control of their lands. Pueblo
1. Today’s Mestizos are descendants of Portuguese colonists and Native Americans.__________
2. Hernándo Cortés marched his force of about 600 men through Mexico to conquer the Aztec
3. The Spanish monarchy assigned mostly conquistadors to explore and colonize the area that would later become the United States. ____________________________________________
4. In 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail east across the Indian Ocean in search of a trade route to Asia and its riches. __________________________________________________________
5. The purpose of Christopher Columbus’s second voyage to the Americas was to establish Spanish colonies on the islands of the Caribbean.____________________________________
6. The encomiendas were Spanish explorers who conquered and colonized areas of what are now Mexico, South America, and the United States. ____________________________________
7. Montezuma II, the leader of the Arawak people of Brazil, fell out of favor with his subjects over his response to the Spanish conquest. ________________________________________
8. Francisco Pizarro and his army defeated the Inca by killing a largely unarmed group and then kidnapping and murdering their king. ____________________________________________
BCR. Critical Thinking Briefly answer the following question on the back of this paper.
Do you think the native peoples of the Americas could have successfully defended their civilizations for any significant period of time if they had been more suspicious of the first Spanish to arrive?
PRIMARY SOURCE from The Journal of Christopher Columbus
Columbus kept a ship’s log, or journal, of his historic voyage from Spain to the Americas. When he returned to Spain in 1493, he presented the journal to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. The version printed here was originally copied by the missionary Bartolomé de Las Casas and refers to Columbus in the third person as “admiral” unless quoting him directly. As you read, think about the reactions of Columbus, his crew, and the Taino when they first encountered one another.
Thursday, October 11th/. . .Two hours after mid-night land appeared, at a distance of about two leagues from them. They took in all sail, remaining with the mainsail, which is the great sail without bonnets, and kept jogging, waiting for day, a Friday, on which they reached a small island of the Lucayos, which is called in the language of the Indians “Guanahaní.” ……Soon many people (Taino )of the island gathered there. Afterwards they came swimming to the ships’ boats, where we were, and brought us parrots and cotton thread in balls, and spears and many other things, and we exchanged for them other things, such as small glass beads and hawks’ bells, which we gave to them. In fact, they took all and gave all, such as they had, with good will, but it seemed to me that they were a people very deficient in everything. They all go naked as their mother bore them, and the women also, although I saw only one very young girl. And all those whom I did see were youths, so that I did not see one who was over thirty years of age; they were very well built, with very handsome bodies and very good faces. They do not bear arms or know them, for I showed to them swords and they took them by the blade and cut themselves through ignorance.
They have no iron. Their spears are certain reeds, without iron, and some of these have a fish tooth at the end, while others are pointed in various ways. They are all generally fairly tall, good looking and well pro-portioned. I saw some who bore marks of wounds on their bodies, and I made signs to them to ask how this came about, and they indicated to me that people came from other islands, which are near, and wished to capture them, and they defended themselves. And I believed and still believe that they come here from the mainland to take them for slaves. They should be good servants and of quick intelligence, since I see that they very soon say all that is said to them, and I believe that they would easily be made Christians, for it appeared to me that they had no creed. Our Lord willing, at the time of my departure I will bring back six of them to Your Highnesses, that they may learn to talk. I saw no beast of any kind in this island, except parrots.” All these are the words of the admiral.
Saturday, October 13th/As soon as day broke, there came to the shore many of these men, all youths, as I have said, and all of a good height, very handsome people. They came to the ship in boats, which are made of a tree trunk like long boat and all of one piece. They are very wonderfully carved, considering the country, and large, so that in some forty or forty-five men came. Others are smaller, so that in some only a solitary man came. They row them with a paddle, like a baker’s peel, and they travel wonderfully fast.
If one capsizes, all at once begin to swim and right it, baling it out with gourds which they carry with them. They brought balls of spun cotton and parrots and spears and other trifles, which it would be tedious to write down, and they gave all for anything that was given to them. And I was attentive and laboured to know if they had gold, and I saw that some of them wore a small piece hanging from a hole which they have in the nose, and from signs I was able to understand that, going to the south or going round the island to the south, there was a king who had large vessels of it and possessed much gold. I endeavoured to make them go there, and afterwards saw that they were not inclined for the journey. I resolved to wait until the afternoon of the following day, and after that to leave for the south-west, for, as many of them indicated to me, they said that there was land to the south and to the south-west and to the north-west, and that those of the north-west often came to attack them. So I resolved to go to the south-west, to seek the gold and precious stones. This island is fairly large and very flat; the trees are very gree and there is much water.
In the centre of it, there is a very large lake; there is no mountain, and all is so green that it is a pleasure to gaze upon it. The people also are very gentle and, since they long to possess something of ours and fear that nothing will be given to them unless they give something, when they have nothing, they take what they can and immediately throw themselves into the water and swim. But all that they do possess, they give for anything which is given to them, so that they exchange things even for pieces of broken dishes and bits of broken glass cups. . . .”
1. Recognizing Facts and Details What is Columbus’s main interest on the island? Why is he interested in that?
2. Making Judgments What impressed you most about this excerpt from Columbus’s journal?
3. Recognizing Point of ViewWhat do you think is Columbus’s attitude toward the Taino? Point out passages that reveal his thoughts and feelings about them.