5. taxes 10. public interest 11. It is a citizen’s duty to obey laws, educate hin/her-self to the important issues, and participate in government by voting and serving on juries. BIOGRAPHY
1. John Jay’s legal career ended when the American Revolution began.
2. Jay was sent to ask Spain for money for the war effort and to get the Spanish government to recognize American independence; Spain would not recognize the United States but did provide money and weapons
3. When Jay was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, he decide in Chisholm v. Georgia that citizens of one state had the right to sue another state; Congress pass the Eleventh Amendment to protect states from being sued
4. After he resigned his post as chief justice, Jay became the governor of New York Summary: In today’s lesson we described how a person could become a U.S. citizen and we identified the important responsibilities of citizen.
Homework: Naturalization & Deport
Naturalization, which is a legal process for gaining citizenship
Deport - send immigrants back to the country from which they came.
Name ___________________________________ Class _______________ Date ________________
USHX 2.3 Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship
laws committees 1. People born in a foreign country whose parents are not U.S. citizens can become citizens only if they move to the United States and go through a process called _______________________ .
2. The U.S. government has the right to _______________________ , or return to his or her country of origin, any immigrant who breaks the law or who is in the country illegally.
3. The only distinctions between naturalized and native-born citizens are that naturalized citizens can lose their citizenship and they cannot become _______________________ or _______________________ of the United States.
4. All citizens have a responsibility to stay informed about the issues and to be aware of changes in _______________________ that affect them.
5. The government relies on _______________________ to pay for the many services it provides to citizens.
6. Most funding for public schools comes from _______________________ .
7. All citizens face the possibility of being called for _______________________ , which involves listening to a court case and reaching a verdict on it.
8. In order to make rational decisions, voters must be wary of ______________________, or material that is slanted deliberately to support or harm a cause.
9. Citizens who wish to can make financial contributions to political candidates directly or through _______________________ .
10. Some groups in the United States, called _______________________ groups, lobby for issues that affect all Americans.
11.What are some of the important responsibilities of a citizen?
Political Action Committees (PAC’s)
2.3 USH BIOGRAPHY READING John Jay
John Jay is best known as the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. That appointment, however, was only one achievement in the life of this statesman, diplomat, and highly regarded leader. Jay served the new nation in many roles.
John Jay was born in New York City in 1745, the sixth son of Peter and Mary Jay. As a boy, Jay was tutored at home. He enjoyed his studies, and in 1764 he graduated from King’s College (now Columbia University). Jay then began to prepare for the bar in the New York law office of Benjamin Kissum. In 1768 Jay passed the bar exam and became a lawyer. He married Sarah Van Brugh Livingston on April 28, 1774. The couple had two sons and five daughters. The American Revolution brought an end to Jay’s legal career, and he began a career of public service. He helped to write the constitution of the
2.3 USH BIOGRAPHY READING John Jay…..continued
state of New York and served as the state’s chief justice until 1779. He was also New York’s representative to the First and Second Continental Congresses. In 1778 Jay was elected president of the Second Continental Congress, a position he held until September 1779 when he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Spain.
Jay asked the Spanish government to recognize American independence and provide financial support to the new nation. Although the Spanish would not officially recognize the United States, they did provide money and weapons in secret. In 1782 Benjamin Franklin called Jay to Paris to help with the peace negotiations with Great Britain. The terms of the peace treaty were settled in 1783.
After the war ended, Jay refused appointments as minister to Great Britain and as minister to France because he wanted to return to private life in New York. Congress, however, had already appointed him secretary of foreign affairs. Jay accepted the appointment and remained in that office until after the Constitution was adopted and the government reorganized. Although he did not attend the Constitutional Convention, he wrote five essays in support of ratification. President George Washington nominated Jay to be the first chief justice of the Supreme Court. The most important case decided by Jay was Chisholm v. Georgia.
In his decision Jay said that a citizen of one state had the right to sue another state. Because the states did not agree with his decision, they quickly passed the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution to protect states from being sued. While serving as chief justice, Jay was sent to Great Britain to resolve a new crisis. The British navy had seized U.S. ships carrying illegal goods from the French West Indies. Jay negotiated a treaty to resolve many of the problems between the two countries.
On his return to the United States he resigned his post as chief justice to serve as governor of New York. After serving two terms as governor, he retired from politics. Jay refused a nomination by President Adams to serve as chief justice a second time, and spent the rest of his life in retirement. He died in 1829 at the age of 84.
UNDERSTANDING WHAT YOU READ
1. What event brought an end to John Jay’s legal career?
2. Why was Jay sent to Spain? What was the outcome of his trip?
3. What did Jay decide in Chisholm v. Georgia? Why did Congress pass the Eleventh Amendment?
4. What did Jay do after he resigned his post as chief justice?