Document: Emerentiana Bowden to Abraham Lincoln, April 23, 1864



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from observation, the policy which appears to him proper and nesesary for the interests of the people of both governments.

First it may be asserted with safety that the bigotry, the self complacency, the national vanity of the English and Scotch, cannot be understood or appreiciated by any American, untill he has mingled with them.

But these errors have been aggravated by Secessionists who have fled from the Southern States to Canada by thousands in order to avoid the horrors of the present civil war. They have sought, and in a degree succeeded in making English and Scotch Cannadians regard us with hostile contempt-- This feeling was to some extent directed against myself, and finally culminated so far as I was concerned, in my arrest, and holding me to bail. It became neseccary that some movement on our part should indicate to the polliticians and Statesmen of Canada that their prosperity and interrest depended in a great degree upon the good will of the United States.



The report of the committe in the house of representatives in favor of terminating the reciprocity treaty; The introduction of bills in both houses of Congress for the repeal of our bonding laws: and the resolution calling for the correspondence relating to my arrest -- had the desired effect. The Cannadian discussion of these subjects demonstrates the existence of a thousand pecuniary ligaments which bind the Cannadians to us. The people saw that these ligaments could not be severed without destroying the prosperity of Canada. I may give some important facts in illustration. Oats, Pease, and Barley are Staple products of Canada -- which always find a ready market in the States. But neither of these will bear the transportation to England, and all duties collected on them must be deducted from the agricultural interest, if the treaty be terminated. This condition of things points directly and unmistakably to the annexation of the Canadas, as it is the interest of every farmer to find a market for his produce.

But this dependence of the Agricultural interest on us is small when compared with the commercial. The repeal of the bonding laws may well be regarded as the death blow to Cannadian Commerce, and will diminish the value of real estate in Montreal twenty five per cent. The movements in Congress towards this repeal have awakned a most lively interest amoung the merchants of the Provinces, and many leading minds say that if those Laws shall be repealed, the Cannadas will apply for annexation in one year. Thus are the agricultural and comercial interests, too closely connected with us to be severed. But annother important interest has been awakned by the order of the Secretary of the treasury prohibiting the export of antharcite coal. This kind of coal is used in all the dwellings of the Aristocratic and opulent citizens of Canada. But the prohibition is felt most severely by the manufacturing interrest, for all their factories driven by steam have been erected with the intention of using Antharcite coal, and now they are unable to use any other, while the supply on hand will be exhausted in a few weeks. On this point an intense interrest prevails. The evening after I last arrived in this city Minister Buchanan waited upon me, said that he understood that I had visited Washington in order to obtain a modification of this order, and desired information as to the prospect. Without giving him an answer I enquired whether the Cannadian parliment did not posess the power, to prohibit the re-exportation, so as to secure us against its being sent to Nassau.? He answered that they had, and I at once said they could not expect us to permitt the export of coal to Canada, to enable our enemies to send it to Nassau for the destruction of our government. He declared we were right, and at once said he would do what he could to obtain a prohibition of its re-exportation,
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rtf orig -> Document: Mary C. W. Wadsworth to Abraham Lincoln, July 4, 1864 [With Endorsement by Lincoln]
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rtf orig -> Document: Abraham Lincoln to Mary Mann, April 5, 1864 [Draft]
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