Document: Emerentiana Bowden to Abraham Lincoln, April 23, 1864

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consideration commendation & Such men as have stood up from the first. Nine tenths of them are your warm friends and would go through fire to do all they could for you and the Govt -- but those men in a great measure are overriden by those who are selfishly loyal and who go in for the rule or ruin palicy these men that think more of the Niger than of anything else--

Amoung the class of men that are the most dangerous in this State are Such men as Geo D Prentice and Others of like stripe backed up by such papers as the Louisvile Journal, they are moving heaven & earth to crush you and therby crushing out the sentiments amoung the people which says that Slavery is the caus of this Rebelion.

the truley loyal men of Kentuckey are striving to do what they can and are determined to Sinck or Swim with you-- the new Paper here the Press is a doing a good work but it is hard begining at this time if any assistance them let it be done as the only Shure means of Counteracting the influence of the Journal

Thare is another Class of Men that are doing all they Can for your Overthrow & that is a large propotion of the Officers not actively engaged in the field take my owne department for instance (the Quartermasters) out of the whole number of them Stationed in this City and I must Say in the State thare are but One that is a filling an important Post that is unconditonley Union Men Maney of them who are in Autharity Curse you daily and throw all the Odium upon you that they Can and declare that McClellan is the only Man to hold the helm of State. for instance onley yesterday morning an A Q M was Sitting at the Galt House reading the Press anouther A Q M, in One of the most responsible positions here Saw him and says what in hell are you reading that damd Nigger Paper for it is Old Abs abolition Sheet this before Others Such Straws Show which way the wind blows the man to whome I refer was Capt J H Ferry2 A Q M Such things aught not to be allowed & the Sooner the matter is remedied the better this is a very important point and from hear must go out either for good or eavle the remedy is in your hands

2 John H. Ferry was appointed a captain and assistant quartermaster of volunteers in April 1862 and resigned from the service in May 1865.

Loyal men look to you and I tell them that they will not be disappointed all you want to know is whare to Strike if I can be of any Service to you or the Caus Cammand me and I will try and be up and ready the Other A Q M to whome I have referd as all right is Capt J G Klinck3 from Ohio and as truly loyal man as thare is in the Service

3 John G. Klinck was appointed a captain and assistant quartermaster of volunteers in August 1861 and was honorably mustered out in July 1865.

Hoping you will Pardon me for writing you

I remain your Excellencys

Obt Servt and

friend of 60 & 64

C H Gaubert

Capt & A Q M

Document: John P. Usher to Abraham Lincoln, May 6, 18641

1 Lincoln convened a meeting of his cabinet on May 3 and requested each member to submit a written opinion that recommended a course of action for the government to take in response to the massacre of black soldiers at Fort Pillow, Tennessee on April 12. See Lincoln to William H. Seward, May 3, 1864 and Lincoln to Cabinet, May 3, 1864.

Washington D. C. May 6th 1864.


I have received your note of the 3d instant. I have the honor in compliance with your directions, to submit, for your consideration, my opinion upon the case therein stated.

The rebel authorities at Richmond will be rightfully considered as responsible for the outrage to which you refer, unless they formally disvow it, and visit condign punishment upon the officers who perpetrated or ordered it.

The General duty of the Government will be admitted by those who recognize its obligation to protect all who are mustered into its military service. Every consideration due to our position in the family of nations -- to humanity, to civilization should prompt us, in the existing condition of the country, to maintain an habitual and scrupulous observance of the usages of modern warfare, and to exact it from all who are in arms against us. A more signal violation of those usages has rarely occurred. Submission to it would forfeit our honor and invite similar and perhaps aggrevated outrages in the future.

What should be the mode and measure of redress, and the time for carrying it into effect?

We are upon the eve of an impending battle. Until the result shall have been known it seems to me to be inexpedient to take any extreme action in the premises. If favorable to our arms we may retaliate as far as the laws of War and humanity will permit. If disastrous, and extreme measures should have been adopted, we may be placed in a position of great embarrassment, and forced to forego our threatened purpose in order to avoid a worse calamity.

I do not think it would be wise to inflict retaliation upon the prisoners now in our hands who were captured before the massacre complained of. Of those who may be thereafter captured, the forces under Forrest’s2 command, or acting in concert with him, are, in the first instance, the proper subjects of retaliation

2 Nathan Bedford Forrest was commander of the Confederate forces at Fort Pillow.

Some step should now be taken in that direction. The Colored troops should be satisfied that, it is the unalterable purpose of this government to protect them in good faith, and to its utmost ability.

With this view and to vindicate that great law which secures to the soldier the rights and immunities of War, I am of opinion that the government should set apart for execution, an equal number of prisoners who, since the massacre, have been or may hereafter, from time to time, be captured from Forrests Command, designating, in every instance, as far as practicable, officers insted of privates.3

3 At a cabinet meeting on May 6, each member read his opinion on the case and after receiving this advice, Lincoln began to draft a set of instructions for Stanton to implement in response to the massacre. Apparently Lincoln became distracted by other matters, such as Grant’s campaign against Lee and these instructions were neither completed nor submitted to the War Department. For the written opinions of the cabinet, see Edward Bates to Lincoln, May 4, 1864; William H. Seward to Lincoln, May 5, 1864; Edwin M. Stanton to Lincoln, May 5, 1864; Gideon Welles to Lincoln, May 5, 1864; Montgomery Blair to Lincoln, May 6, 1864; and Salmon P. Chase to Lincoln, May 6, 1864. For Lincoln’s unfinished instructions to Stanton, see Collected Works, VII, 345-46. For an account of the May 6 cabinet meeting, see Howard K. Beale ed. Diary of Gideon Welles (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1960), Vol. 2, 24-25.

I am Sir,

Very respectfully

Your obt Servant

J. P. Usher



Document: Charles A. Dana to Thomas T. Eckert, May 7, 18641

1 Grant had commenced his campaign against Lee on May 4 and Lincoln was eager to receive frequent and reliable updates from the front. At a conference held at the War Department on May 6, Lincoln requested Dana to go to Grant’s headquarters and make reports on the progress of Grant’s army. The following is the first of many telegrams that Dana sent to the War Department during the first month of the campaign. For the remainder of Dana’s dispatches, see Official Records, Series I, Volume 36, Part I, 63ff.

Recd 750 A M -- 7th


715 A M

May 7” 1864

Maj T T Eckert--

Just arrived here all safe. An Officer from Genl Meade2 was here at two Oclock this morning seeking to telegraph to Washington, but was recalled by a second Messenger and both returned to Meade-- They report that there was heavy fighting yesterday in the Wilderness beyond Germania Ford3 -- they state regarding the number of wounded, from three to five thousand. We drove the rebels three miles, but were unable to use artillery with effect, owing to the density of the forest. The battle is believed here to have been cindecisive but as the Officer said but little, I can gather nothing precise--

2 George G. Meade

3 The Union Army suffered over seventeen thousand casualties at the battle of the Wilderness on May 5-7.

The first of these Officers said he came to get ammunition brought up from Alexandria-- There is evidently no difficulty in getting to the front for which I shall leave as soon as the horses and men have had breakfast-- I leave an operator here to forward reports.

C. A. Dana

Document: Joseph J. Lewis to Abraham Lincoln, May 7, 18641

1 Lewis was commissioner of internal revenue.

Washington, May 7th 1864

My dear Sir

Mrs Sarah B. Meconkey a most es a most estimable and loyal lady of Pennsylvania piously concerned for the health and personal welfare of the President inquires how he sustains the burden of his multiplied cares at this trying period. I have thought it best to refer the inquiry to the President himself for an answer with the assurance that nothing can afford her gratification than a cheerful line under your hand, with the addition, if it may be, that you feel that you have just grounds for confidence in a near deliverance of our bleeding country from its present perils and troubles.2

2 For Lincoln’s reply to Sarah Meconkey, see Collected Works, VII, 333.

Your obt servt

Joseph J Lewis

Document: R. Shannon to Abraham Lincoln, May 7, 1864

Newport Md

May 7 -- 1864

I have been requested by the friends of Capt William L. Sheirburn to write to you in his behalf.

I have known him for several years to be a peasefull and quiet Citizen,

I do not think that Capt Sheirburn was aware that he was selling goods to a Contraband runner,1

1 William L. Shurburne was tried by a military commission and convicted of trading with the enemy. Lincoln referred the case to Governor Thomas Hicks of Maryland on May 18 and agreed to pardon Shurburne upon the governor’s recommendation. See Adjutant General’s Office, Printed General Orders, April 5, 1864.

he was of oppinion that Baxter was a resident of Charles County and I have been informed that said Baxter is a resident of Charles County.


Your Obt Servent

R. Shannon

P. M.

Newport Md

Document: Ulysses S. Grant to Henry W. Halleck, May 8, 18641

1 After suffering over seventeen thousand casualties at the battle of the Wilderness on May 5-7, Grant did not retreat and instead pushed his army south towards Spotsylvania. In the following telegram Grant advises Halleck of his plans.

Recd Cipher

3.15 p m

Hd Qrs Piney Branch Church

11 a m May 8th 1864

The army commenced moving south at 9 p m yesterday and when close up to the position assigned on one days march will stand thus-- Genl Warrens Corps2 at Spotsylvania Court house-- Hancocks3 at Todds tavern-- Sedgwicks4 on road from Piney Branch Church to Spotsylvania and Gen Burnside5 at Aldrichs-- It is not yet demonstrated what the enemy will do -- but the best of feeling prevails in this army and I feel at present no apprehension for the result. My efforts will be to form a junction with Genl Butler6 as early as possible and be prepared to beat any enemy interposing-- The results of the three days fight at Old Wilderness was decidedly in our favor-- The Enemy having a strongly entrenched position to fall back on when hard pressed and the extensive train we had to cover rendered it impossible to inflict the heavy blow on Lees army I had hoped--

2 Gouverneur Warren was commander of the 5th Corps.

3 Winfield Scott Hancock was commander of the 2nd Corps.

4 John Sedgwick commanded the 6th Corps until he was killed by a sharpshooter on May 9.

5 Ambrose Burnside was commander of the 9th Corps.

6 Benjamin F. Butler

My exact route to the James River I have not yet definately marked out

U S Grant

Lt Genl

Document: Edward McPherson to John G. Nicolay, May 8, 1864 [With Endorsement by Lincoln]1

1 Nothing further is known about this matter.

Washington D.C., May 8, 1864.

My Dear Sir--

The bearers -- Col. Boyd & Mr Carson of Norristown, Pa -- desire to see the Prest a moment on business which the Prest now has before him, respecting a Provost Marshal in Penna, the nephew of an old Congressional friend of the Prest.--

I am unable to accompany them, but will be obliged if you should be able to secure them an audience--

Very respectfully yrs

Edwd McPherson

[Endorsed on Envelope by Lincoln:]


Document: Abraham Lincoln to Friends of Union and Liberty, May 9, 1864 [Copy]1

1 General Grant’s Spring campaign opened with the Battle of the Wilderness, beginning on May 5, 1864. It is to that battle that Lincoln alludes in this message which was intended, and used, as a press release which appeared in newspapers on May 10, 1864.

[Marginal note: Civil.]

Executive Mansion,

Washington, May 9, 1864.

To the friends of Union & Liberty.

Enough is known of Army operations within the last five days to claim our especial gratitude to God; while what remains undone demands our most sincere prayers to, and reliance upon, Him, without Whom, all human effort is vain. I recommend that all patriots, at their homes, in their places of public worship, and wherever they may be, unite in common thanksgiving and prayer to Almighty God,

Abraham Lincoln

Document: Abraham Lincoln to William H. Seward, May 9, 1864 [Copy in Frederick Seward’s Hand]1

1 For some background for this note, see Josiah Snow to Seward, May 10, 1864.
There Snow, an Arkansas Unionist, identifies Anthony A.C. Rogers, one of Arkansas’ newly-elected delegates to Congress, as a Copperhead or disloyal Democrat.

[Marginal note: Copy From F. W. S.]2

2 Copies of Lincoln’s correspondence with Seward were provided to John G. Nicolay by Seward’s son and secretary, Frederick W. Seward.

I believe Mr Snow is a good man; but two things need to be remembered. 1st Mr Rogers rival was a relation of Mr Snow. 2nd I hear of nobody calling Mr Rogers a Copperhead but Mr Snow. However, let us watch.

A. L.

May 9. 1864.


Document: Andrew Johnson and Horace Maynard to Salmon P. Chase, May 9, 1864

Nashville May 9th 1864


We beg permission to call your attention to the place on the Board of Commissioners for Direct Taxes in Tennessee, now held by John B. Rodgers Esq.

We have already stated in decided terms our opinion of his unfitness for a position of so much responsibility, and of the importance of having at least one citizen as an acting efficient member of the Board.

Samuel Milligan Esq, of Greeneville Tennessee, is, in our opinion, by his long citizenship and large local acquaintance in the State, by his buisness qualifications his urbanity of manners, and his firm undeviating loyalty, eminently qualified to fill the office, and we earnestly recomend and respectfully request his appointment.

We have the honor to be, Very Respectfully

Your obedt Servants

Andrew Johnson

Horace Maynard

[Endorsed by Salmon P. Chase:]

Treasury Department,

May 17, 1864.

Very respectfully referred to the President

S P Chase

Document: Allison C. Poorman to Abraham Lincoln, May 9, 1864 [Copy, With Endorsement, in Lincoln’s Hand]1

1 This request from Poorman was carried to Washington by Dennis Hanks, Lincoln’s cousin-once-removed and boyhood companion, who was visiting Lincoln in behalf of prisoners arrested following the Charleston, Illinois riot of March 28, 1864. Allison Poorman had married Dennis Hanks’ daughter Amanda Hanks. Lincoln apparently endorsed the original letter, but made a copy of it and his endorsement for his files.


Charleston, Ills. May 1864

Dear Sir

As I am now out of business I write you for the purpose of making application for a permit to trade within the lines of the Western Army in all kinds of Merchandize, Liquors excepted. I would of course expect to be governed by the rules of Trade as established by the Treasure department. If you will grant me this request you will confer a favor that will not be soon forgotten. Yours very Truly

Allison C. Poorman


The writer of the within is a family connection of mine, & a worthy man; and I shall be obliged if he be allowed what he requests, so far as the rules and exigencies of the public service will permit.

A Lincoln

May 15. 1864


Document: William F. Schriver to Abraham Lincoln, May 9, 1864 [Copy and Endorsement by Lincoln]1

1 This request from Schriver was carried to Washington by Dennis Hanks, Lincoln’s cousin-once-removed and boyhood companion, who was visiting Lincoln in behalf of prisoners arrested following the Charleston, Illinois riot of March 28, 1864. William F. Shriver had married Dennis Hanks’ daughter Mary Hanks. Lincoln apparently endorsed the original letter, but made a copy of it and his endorsement for his files.


Charleston, Ills. May 9th 1864

Dear Sir

This will be presented to you by Father Hanks
2 who will more fully lay before you my wants than I can here explain. I will simply say that if consistent with your feelings, and not in any way conflicting with Army regulations I would like a permit to trade within the lines of the Armies of the Cumberland, Mississippi and Arkansas in Cotton & Hides for shipment North. For reference I can only offer Father Hanks.

2 Dennis Hanks

I am very truly Your Obt. Servt.

W. F. Schriver.


The writer of this is personally unknown to me, though married to a young relative of mine-- I shall be obliged if he be allowed what he requests so far as the rules and exigencies of the public service will permit.

A. Lincoln

May 15. 1864

[Endorsed on Envelope by Lincoln:]

Dennis Hanks--

Poorman3 & Schriver.

3 Lincoln apparently filed this document with another of a similar character. See Allison C. Poorman to Lincoln, May 9, 1864.

Document: A. L. Stimson to Abraham Lincoln, May 9, 1864

New York, May 9. 1864

Dear Sir:

As a lover of Emancipation I went to hear Rev. Mr Cheever,1 last night, in his own church. In the pulpit with him was Rev. M. French,2 favorably known to you, perhaps, but very obnoxious to the better class of your friends in Beaufort, S. C., where he has been nominally hospital Surg Chaplain, without performing the duty. I know him by sight very well, though I have never spoken to him.

1 George B. Cheever, pastor at the Church of the Puritans in New York City, had been an advocate of immediate emancipation since the beginning of the war and was critical of Lincoln’s policies on the issue. Cheever favored equal rights for blacks and in 1864 he supported John C. Fremont’s candidacy for the presidency.

2 Mansfield French was appointed a hospital chaplain of volunteers in July 1862 and was honorably mustered out of the service in August 1865.

Mr. Cheever attacked Congress virulently, but the main burden of his contemptuous tirade was against yourself. It was the foulest misrepresentation.

This I would not mention but for the purpose of communicating the still more disgraceful fact, that Rev. Mr French frequently shouted “Amen!” [and] by the tone of some subsequent remarks of his own, confirmed in some minds, the bad impressions conveyed by the lunatic Cheever.

Your Obt Servt

A L Stimson

Document: Benjamin F. Wade, et al. to Abraham Lincoln, May 9, 1864

Washington City May 9. 1864,


We present to you, for your most favorable consideration of any request he may have to make, one of the oldest & most venerated & esteemed Citizens of Ohio -- Col. David Chambers1 of Muskingum County.

1 Chambers (1780-1864), an Ohio politician and newspaper editor, was a veteran of the War of 1812 and had served as a member of the 17th Congress (1821-23).

Col. Chambers was a member of Congress from our State more than forty years ago; in our State Legislature, & in an active & efficient participation in public affairs in many capacities, for upwards of half a century, he has been identified with our political & civil history; & now at the advanced age of eighty three years, in our present time of great trial, he brings to his Country’s service not only a sound loyal heart, but a vigor both of body & mind which might be envied even by younger men.

Not only as a link therefore connecting us with the noble Past, but as a citizen-patriot wide awake, in full possession of his powers, & prompt & ready for duty in the Present, we introduce Colonel Chambers to you as Chief Magistrate of the Land which, with all its free institutions, has been the cherished love alike of his youth & his old age.

B. F. Wade

John Sherman

Jno. A. Bingham

Robt. C. Schenck

Rufus P. Spalding2

2 Spalding, an Ohio lawyer and politician, served three terms (1863-69) in the U. S. House as a Republican.

J. A. Garfield3

3 The future President of the United States was serving the first of his eight terms in Congress when he signed this letter.

J. M Ashley

Document: L. J. Cist to Henry T. Blow, May 9, 1864

St. Louis, May 9 1864.

Dear Sir,

The Autograph Committee beg leave to ask the favor of a letter from you, with your Card Photograph Signed, for our Collection of Such mementos of our public men, to be sold in the “Old Curiosity Shop”, at our Coming Fair for the benefit of the Sick & wounded Soldiers in the Missi Valley.

We have collected quite a number of interesting, (some of them rare & valuable) Autographs, among the number the following Presidents of the U S. -- Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, J. Q. Adams, Jackson, Harrison, Tyler, Polk & Buchanan. We would much like a letter from or of Prest Lincoln. As he has not replied to our application of April 25th we fear he will not do so. Could you perhaps obtain from someone else a letter or note written by him, for our Series of “Aut’s of the Presidents”.

Any aid you can give us will be thankfully acknowledged. Very respy & truly Yours1

1 Lincoln complied with Cist’s request on May 16. See Joseph W. McClurg to Lincoln, May 14, 1864 and Collected Works, VII, 343.

L J Cist

Chairman Committee

Document: Cuthbert Bullitt to Abraham Lincoln, May 10, 1864


New Orleans, May 10th 1864

My Dear Sir

I had the honor of addressing you on the 4th to which I respectfully call your attention--1

1 Bullitt’s letter of May 4 is not in this collection.

You have herewith a long story from our law adviser Mr Waples2 in answer to questions propounded by Mr Flanders3 upon the subject of commerce & cotton, it is interpreted here as an entire prohibition to commerce,-- It is my duty to repeat to you, that the Confederate authorities will never allow a bale of cotton to come to market upon the conditions as set forth in the Treasury law of 26th January, as promulgated in General Banks late order--4

2 Rufus Waples was the U. S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Louisiana.

3 Benjamin F. Flanders

4 Bullitt attached a clipping that contains correspondence between Waples and Flanders concerning trade regulations.

The city is filled with rumors from Banks, which are painful to think of, & while I have no faith in them, I have great anxiety, as we have no direct communication from him for four days--

The city & State elected delegates yesterday to a State convention, to elect delegates to the National Convention at Baltimore. Being a delegate myself, I can say with Safety, a majority are in favor of your reelection, though great efforts are being made by the Chase men to turn the tide against you--

Should they send me to Baltimore which is quite likely, I will post you up in person--

Yours Most Sincerely

Cuthbert Bullitt

Document: James R. Doolittle to Abraham Lincoln, May 10, 1864


Washn May 10. 1864

Senate Chamber

Dear Sir:

Genl Oglesby goes with Mr Arnold1 to New York to attend the meeting at Coopers Institute.

1 Richard J. Oglesby and Isaac N. Arnold

Gov Randall2 a fine speaker from our State, will be there also I presume as he is now in New York When I speak I desire an hour or an hour & a half without feeling inside all the while that I may be trespassing upon the feelings and rights of my associates, As Mr Arnold & Genl Oglesby can well occupy the whole of one evening.

2 Alexander W. Randall

I prefer to wait to avail myself of another occasion to give utterance to my whole thought in a consecutive form, whether I shall do it in the Senate or at a public meeting elsewhere

Your attached


J R Doolittle

Document: C. D. Douglas to Abraham Lincoln, May 10, 1864 [With Endorsement by Lincoln]1

1 No other letters from Douglas are in this collection. James Short was one of Lincoln’s best friends in New Salem, Illinois during the 1830s. In 1861 Lincoln appointed him agent for the Round Valley Indian reservation in California. For more on Short’s case, see Short to Lincoln, January 17 and May 13, 1864.

Fort, Wright, Round Valley Cal

May 10th 1864

Sir-- In a former communication addressed to your Excellency, I had the honor to call your attention to affairs of Mr James Short relative to his administration, as Supervisor of the “horn Cult” or “Round Valley, Indian Reservation.”

I respectfully beg leave to again call your attention to that subject, in order, that Justice may be done to a much abused man, and permit me to express the hope that will no longer defer, or hold back the hand of Justice in this particular case, I at the same time most respectfully, beg your Excellency’s pardon for persuming to at all address you on any subject, while I am in the Service. And my only excuse is my desire to see justice done to an honest, upright and honorable man, and as far as in my power, I will do so though “the heavens should fall” I have traversed half the Globe, in my time, and I am sorry to have to say, that in all my experience I have never met with case showing so much gross injustice, as Mr. Short has been subjected during the last year. Mr. Short was removed by Geo. M. Hanson,
2 because he was in his way in his efforts to swindle the government, And to make room for a man that aid and assist him in his operations in defrauding the Govt. And because, (as Hanson has the audacity to say,) “of his moral conduct” As for the charges prefered Against Mr Short, by Mr. Hanson. They are based on false hood, and entirely to ridiculous to be discoussed here, after Hansons removal, The Department, appointed in his place a Mr. Steele;3 A man that had hardly got of the stump, As he had stumpped the State for the “Copperhead” party. The claims of Mr. Short Against the Government, were turned of over to Mr Steele for settlment, with the instruction to investigate the charges against Short. I do not know whether he compleid with latter part of his instruction or not but I do know that he has not so far as the settlement, or investigation, is concerned It could not reasonably be expected that a disloyal man would put himself much about to do, an act of justice to a man that he well knew was loyal. When Mr. Steele, was informed that Mr. Short was a personal friend of the Presidents he remarked, that no such man, could or would hold any office under him (And I asure you that he kept his word, in that respect). the above remark was made to a “copperhead” which copperhead told me. Again Mr. Short in the early part of /63, purchased corn, to, feed the Indians And paid for it out of his own private fund, the sum of $600, in Gold, which has not been as yet refunded. It is a well known fact that Hanson and Melendy4 and afterward Steele and Melendy used every effort to ruin Mr. Shorts, reputation, and also ruin him pecuniary. And it is painful to know, that in the latter they were have been successful, his reputation they cannot harm, it is a burning shame to those responsible for it that they permitted, Swindlers, Copperhead, and such rascals to bring to the very door of beggary a man lik Mr Short. Hanson Charges Short with misconducting the Reservation, I am certain that whatever Short done on the Reservation was done in good faith, and that he did not, conduct affairs there through the advice of Copperhead, or old defaulters, As they have been conducted since his removal. the Round Valley reserve, is not conduct by Steele or Melendy, but by, the old, “War horse of copperheads, in this County Col, Thomas, J. Henely and Sons. Your Excellency can easly, see what kind of a man Henely is as by refering to the Indian Records in Washington you will find that he is now defaulter to the Government to the amount of one hundred-thousand dollars, he was Indian Agent on this Coast during the Administration of your predecessor. This is the man that actually conduct the Reservation here since Mr. Short was removed even to making the Returns to the Department in Washington. The present Supervisor, (Dr Melendy) does not at all associate with none but “copperheads,” such are the men for which Mr. Short has been turned out of his position, and thereby ruined pecuniary and such are the men that the Audacity to injure the reputation of Mr Short, when the do not show their faces Among honest men. Why has Hanson, an Steele, refused to investigate the charges prefered by the former against Short just becuse they know them to be false, and by investigating them, their own evil deeds would come to light; My position here as Militrary Commander of the Valley since December 1862, I had had a better oppertunity to observe and note the doings of these men, than any other in the Valley.

2 George M. Hanson, a politician from Coles County, Illinois, was appointed a superintending agent for the Northern District of the California Indian Office.

3 Elijah Steele was a superintending agent for the Northern District of the California Superintendency.

4 The 1863 Official Register lists William P. Melendy as the physician at the Round Valley agency.

I do earnestly but respectfully hope that your Excellency will see that Justice is done to Mr. Short.

I am Verry respectfully sir

Your Obt svt

C, D, Douglas

Capt 2nd Infty Cal, Vols

Comdg, Round, Valley

[Endorsed by Lincoln:]

James Short.

Document: Albert G. Hodges to Abraham Lincoln, May 10, 18641

1 Hodges was a Frankfort, Kentucky newspaper editor who had met with Lincoln on March 26, 1864 to discuss the enlistment of black soldiers in Kentucky. Hodges was so impressed with Lincoln’s remarks during their interview that he asked Lincoln to put them in writing. Lincoln complied with Hodges’ request and sent him a letter on April 4. Hodges then became a regular correspondent who kept Lincoln apprised of affairs in Kentucky. A draft of Lincoln’s April 4 letter is in this collection.

Frankfort, Kentucky,

May 10, 1864.

My dear Sir:

As I promised to write you occasionally, and keep you posted as to Kentucky, after being confined by indisposition for ten days to my room, I proceed to comply with that promise.

In my correspondence with you, I wish you to consider what I may write, as strictly in the confidence of friendship, for the reason that I may speak of men and their conduct towards you and your administration in condemnatory terms, when peradventure I may do them injustice. I give you my impressions, as made upon me now. I hope, in some of the cases I may refer to, I may be mistaken. It will be gratifying to me if it shall appear hereafter that I am. Since I wrote you last, I frankly acknowledge that I am not so sanguine about carrying Kentucky for you at the November election as I then was, for the reason that I anticipated having the hearty co-operation of Gov. Bramlette2 and Hon. Arch. Dixon,3 not only in the recommendation of your nomination for re-election, but also in a warm support after your nomination. Both being gentlemen of high standing in our State, and representatives of the two sections, and of much popularity, I had hoped much for our cause, in the coming Presidential election, from their personal influence, after the cordial manner you received them, and your cheerful compliance with every request made by them so far as Kentucky interests were concerned. I had a right to infer this from declarations made to me, personally, before I left my home in Kentucky, and also at Washington after their interview with you. I am now apprehensive that both of them will support the nominee of the Chicago Convention, if it be McClellan or Fillmore. My impression is that McClellan is not the choice of the leading politicians in Kentucky, who are acting in concert with Guthrie, Prentice,4 &c., for the reason that he was originally Democratic in his opinions. The prominent Union men in Kentucky who are now for the Chicago nominee were formerly old line whigs, and they all prefer, I think, Mr. Fillmore, and will use their whole powers to give him the nomination. Mr. Fillmore was formerly very strong in Kentucky, and if nominated, I fear will carry off a large portion of the Union party here.

2 Thomas E. Bramlette

3 Archibald Dixon, a Kentucky politician and lawyer, replaced Henry Clay in the U. S. Senate and served from 1852 until 1855.

4 James Guthrie and George D. Prentice

The speeches of Col. Woolford5 and Col. Jacob6 -- both claiming to have shed their blood in trying to quell this rebellion -- is producing a good deal of division in the ranks of the Union party, and favoring as they do, the nominee of the Chicago Convention. And whilst they lampoon the Secessionists as well as your administration, in their speeches, yet the great body of the secessionists will vote with them in the Contest against you.

5 Frank Wolford, the former commander of a cavalry division and colonel of the 1st Kentucky Cavalry, was dismissed from the army in March 1864 for making speeches in which he had advocated resistance to the enlistment of black soldiers and denounced President Lincoln. After his dismissal, Wolford continued his verbal assault upon the Lincoln Administration and was again arrested by the military authorities. There are several documents in this collection that pertain to Wolford’s case. See especially, Abraham Lincoln, Parole for Frank Wolford, July 7, 1864; Lincoln to Wolford, July 17, 1864; and Wolford to Lincoln, July 30, 1864.

6 Richard T. Jacob was a Kentucky Unionist who organized the 9th Kentucky Cavalry and served as the regiment’s colonel. In 1863 Jacob was elected lieutenant governor of Kentucky and became an outspoken critic of the Lincoln Administration because of his opposition to the Emancipation Proclamation. Jacob adamantly opposed the enlistment of black soldiers and in 1864 he actively campaigned for George B. McClellan. In November 1864 he was arrested by the military and banished to the Confederacy. For more on his case, see Jacob to Lincoln, December 26, 1864 and Lincoln to Jacob, January 18, 1865.

Whilst we have these discouragements, still we have a good deal to encourage us. As far as heard from, in the 110 counties in the State, our friends have had meetings in about Sixty counties, and appointed Delegates to our Convention which assembles in Louisville on the 25th of this month, whilst to the Guthrie, Prentice Convention, which assembles on the same day at the same place, there have only been twenty one or twenty two county meetings to send Delegates to that Concern.

From every part of the State, as far as I can learn, among our friends, you are the first choice, and will receive, I doubt not, the almost unanimous nomination for re-election by our people. It is unnecessary for me to say that it is eminently just to you for the very able manner in which you have discharged the arduous duties devolved upon you in this great crisis of our country’s history, but is exceedingly gratifying to me personally, as I am sure you have been the instrument, in hands of God, from preventing Old Kentucky from going into Rebeldom.

I am gratified, also, in informing you that your letter to me is doing good even in Kentucky. Many laboring men who, until they read that letter, were holding back, are now coming out in vindication of your course. Your views in regard to Slavery, as set forth in that little speech in your reception room, was so much in accordance with my own views and feelings, from my earliest manhood, that I could not resist the temptation to ask the favor of you to write it out for me. I have received the thanks of many old and young friends in Kentucky for having obtained your views as set forth in that letter.

As it is my purpose, if my health will permit, to try and to go to Baltimore as a Delegate from this Congressional District, I hope to have the pleasure of calling upon you, immediately before or immediately after the Convention.

The news of the success of our arms by the Army of the Potomac is giving great joy to our people, whilst the heads of both Copperheads and Rebel Sympathisers are hanging low indeed.

May God continue to preserve your life, health, and usefulness to our common country

Yours truly, A. G. Hodges.


Document: Josiah Snow to William H. Seward, May 10, [1864]1

1 Snow was an Arkansas Unionist whom Lincoln nominated for the office of direct tax commissioner. The Senate rejected this appointment. See Snow to Lincoln, February 25, 1864.

Little Rock May


Dear Governor

2 going down Red River leaves this state in a bad fix. If Magruder3 concentrates this way, we shall “go up” if re-inforcements do not come at once. No mistake

2 Nathaniel P. Banks

3 John B. Magruder was commander of the Confederate forces in Texas

Judge Baxter elected Senator in Mitchells place. Balloted three days for Sebastian’s place. My son Wm D Snow was heard in 23 ballotings but Fishback succeeded4

4 Elisha Baxter and William M. Fishback were not allowed to take their seats in the U. S. Senate.

I am one of the Delegates to Baltimore, &c.

Allis,5 Speaker of house was expelled to day for factiousness and attempts to disorganize. He is Roger’s6 leader here. Rogers is one of our Reps to Congress. He has seven belonging to his side in the House. Allis, was elected to Baltimore Convention, be

before the copper became so conspicuous. After his election shewed his hand more boldly.-- He has left here for an office at Washington He kept out of the House with all his party (7) to kill election of Senator, so there should be no quorum

5 H. B. Allis was expelled from the Arkansas House because he had refused to sign Fishback’s certificate of election. After his expulsion, Allis went to Washington where he effectively lobbied the Senate to refuse Fishback’s admission. See William C. Harris, With Charity for All Lincoln and the Restoration of the Union (Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1997), 206-07.

6 In March 1864, A. C. Rogers and two other Unionists were elected to represent Arkansas in the U. S. House but they too were not allowed to take their seats.

Much haste

J Snow

Document: John Birely to Abraham Lincoln, May 11, 1864

Philadelphia May 11th 1864

Dear Sir

I send you to-day, by Adams Express, a walking cane, the wood of which was -- taken from the wreck of the United States ship Alliance, (now laying in the River Delaware.) the first American built Man of War, that hoisted the glorious Stars and Stripes in the War of Indipendence (see Watsons annals 1st Vol.).

It is a relic of the olden times and you would do me honor by accepting it. It comes from an old soldier, and officer in the War of 1812. May God bless you and endow you with wisdom to govern this great nation and crush this wicked rebellion1

1 Lincoln wrote to Birely on May 12 and thanked him for the cane. See Collected Works, VII, 337.

Most Respectfully

Your Obt. Servt.

John Birely

Ship Builder

(of the firm of Birely & Son

The mounting of the cane is made from the fastening taken from the hull of the Ship

J. B.

Document: Salmon P. Chase to Abraham Lincoln, May 11, 1864

Treasury Department.

May 11th 1864.


The Office of Assessor for the District of Kansas has become vacant by the resignation of J. M. Leggett.-- Gov. Carney and Senator Pomeroy
1 recommend the appointment of Mr. Ellsworth Cheeseborough, while Senator Lane and Mr. Wilder2 of the House recommend the appointment of Thomas Stineburgh.

1 Thomas Carney and Samuel C. Pomeroy

2 James H. Lane and Abel C. Wilder

I know nothing of the gentlemen recommended except from the letters transmitted herewith, and therefore respectfully submit the appointment to you without recommendation.3

3 The disagreement over the appointment of a new assessor of internal revenue was indicative of the rupture that had occurred between Senators Lane and Pomeroy. Lincoln wrote to Pomeroy on May 12 and urged him to stop feuding with Lane because, “it gives you the means of tormenting my life out of me, and nothing else.” On June 7, Lincoln appointed Thomas Steinburgh to the vacancy. See Lincoln to Pomeroy, May 12, 1864.

With Great Respect,

S P Chase

Secretary of the Treasury.


Document: Louisiana Constitutional Convention, Ordinance, May 11, 18641

1 The following was enclosed in Michael Hahn to Lincoln, May 14, 1864.

State of Louisiana

An Ordinance

To abolish Slavery and Involuntary Servitude


We, The people of the State of Louisiana, in Convention assembled, do hereby declare and ordain, as follows:

Section First: Slavery and Involuntary Servitude, except as a punishment for Crime whereof the party Shall have been duly Convicted are hereby for ever abolished and prohibited throughout the State.

Section Second: The Legislature Shall make no law, recognizing the right of property in man.


Adopted in Convention at New-Orleans, on this Eleventh day of May, in the year of our Lord, One thousand eight hundred and Sixty four, and Eighty eighth of the Independence of the United States of America.2

2 The Louisiana convention met from April to July 1864 and produced a new constitution that abolished slavery but did not enfranchise blacks. The constitution was ratified by a special election held on September 5.

E H Durell3

3 In May 1863, Lincoln appointed Edward H. Durell the U. S. Judge for the Eastern District of Louisiana. Durell served as president of the 1864 constitutional convention.


of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Louisiana.

A true Copy

John C. [Neelis?]



Document: William Miller to Abraham Lincoln, May 11, 1864 [With Endorsement by Lincoln]1

1 Miller was married to Nancy Hanks, a daughter of Lincoln’s great uncle William Hanks. Her brother was Lincoln’s
cousin and Indiana companion, John Hanks. Elisha Wright, in whose behalf Miller writes, did not receive a commission in the U. S. Army, but he was considered for the position as secretary for the Montana Territory. See Lincoln, Memorandum on Montana Patronage, [June 1864].

New London

Henry County Iowa

11th May, 1864

My dear Sir

You may not reccollect an old man now tottering on the verge of the grave -- then living in Macon County Illinois who wore the name of William Miller and married your Cousin Nancy Hanks

With the keenest remembrances of old times I will never forget Your visits to my humble home which you will reccollect although plain was free as the air to yourself. Providence has far exceeded your expectations and mine in placing you in the great White House. Whilst age has made me feeble When in Illinois, I was so well acquainted with you that I could venture to talk to you about everything and I hope your elevation to place has not changed your native kindness

You will perhaps reccollect Aunt Nancy’s Sister, Celia Hanks, she You will reccollect married John. D. Wright who afterwards came to Des Moisnes Iowa-- John was our County Surveyor was a member of the Legislature and of the State Convention which formed Our Constitution and was withal a very honest clever man

Poor Celia died about twenty years ago when her twin Children, Elisha and Electa were one month old-- I took them children and raised them. Elisha had a very good Education and clerked in a Store until the war broke out and then he volunteered to go to the war to help Cousin Abe (as we all call you) preserve the Country Elisha is a good sensible honest trust worthy boy, and has been in many hard fights. And is a good Soldier I want him to get promotion after so much fighting and suffering He is worthy of a place in the Regular Army as Lieutenant and will in such position never disgrace his Kinsman who can easily give him the appointment he so richly deserves He is a private in Company K. 19th Iowa Infantry

I need not add more which will tire You, I am now upwards of seventy and have to get a friend to write for me as I dictate as I am feeble.

I feel anxious before I die to do something for my dear relative Elisha and feel sure that you will do this for me.

Aunt Nancy is feeble like myself. She joins in my love

to you that God will bless you

in this great time of


I am your Cousin


William Miller

[Endorsed by Lincoln:]

William Miller -- Bill Miller


Document: Lewis Wallace to Abraham Lincoln, May 11, 1864

The following Telegram received at Washington, 11.40 A M. May 11 1864.

From Baltimore 11 A M.

Dated, May 11 1864.

Reply to your Telegram will be up today.1

1 Lincoln had telegraphed General Wallace on May 10 and asked him to explain the case of Dr. Francis L. Hawks. Wallace wrote to Lincoln at length on May 11. Wallace’s letter is in this collection. For Lincoln’s telegram to Wallace, see Collected Works, VII, 335.

Lew Wallace

Maj Gen Comdg

Document: Lewis Wallace to Abraham Lincoln, May 11, 1864

Baltimore, Md. May 11. 1864


Your telegram touching “the trouble with Dr. Hawks,” and requesting me to ask Bishop Whittingham to give you his view of the case, reached me so late in the evening that I could do nothing with it until this morning.

1 For Lincoln’s telegram to Wallace, see Collected Works, VII, 335.

Knowing that Bp W. knew nothing about the affair, I carried yr. request to him in person. After a full exposé, he wrote you a letter in reply, which I have the honor to forward you.2 You will perceive his views are in support of my action, although the giving them was a matter of great delicacy with him, for a reason developed below.

2 See William R. Whittingham to Lincoln, May 11, 1864.

Permit me now to state the trouble with the Revd. gentleman.

The peculiarities of secessionism in Baltimore have naturally become a subject of study. Its most striking feature may be illustrated by a fact-- Out of the multitude of letters captured on the way to “Dixie”, not one is from a man -- they are all from women. The theory that this arose from an uncontrollable desire to communicate with friends and relations in the South, very natural to the sex, is destroyed by the spirit of the letters, which is remarkable for its intense and malignant hate of the Govt., and its disposition to suffer everything and anything for their treasonable cause. This spirit I have traced to the teachings of certain Ministers of the Gospel, whom I have had watched and reported, Dr. Hawks being one of the number.

Dr. H. came to Baltimore, as I am informed, from New York, imported by the disloyalists to make fight, in a spiritual way, against Dr. Cox, who was a devoted Unionist. The result was Dr. Cox departed the city, leaving Dr. H. to take his vacant place. To day his congregation, with exceptions, are sympathisers of the highest social caste. Publicly the Revd. gentleman never says anything exceptionable; hence, hise his loyal people defend him, and even carry their entreaties to yr. Excellency. They honestly believe him all right, while I feel a positive assurance that he is all wrong.

My duty respecting the Dr. became very apparent when I became convinced of the following points, which I beg leave to submit to you as the specific grounds of my action.

1st. Dr. H. insidiously uses his talents, and his personal and ministerial influence to encourage and inflame the hostility of the secession members of his flock against the Government.

2ndly. He is the candidate chosen by the Secessionists to succeed Bishop Whittingham, whose infirmities are of such a nature that he is liable to be carried off any moment.

3rdly. He is one of a number of ministers in the city who do nothing to sustain the Govt., but everything not patently criminal to destroy it in the estimation of their flocks.

4thly. He is the reputed author of a pamphplet, of which (not having been blessed by a sight of it,) I can only say, that it is said to be something Union people never get to see, but which,
nonetheless, is in constant private circulation amongst the reliable disloyalists of the city, and was written to bolster up the decaying cause of the rebellion, and the rebellion itself.

In the next place, you will wish to know the sources of my information.

They are numerous, but my most reliable sources are people of Dr. H’s own denomination and cloth, whose private characters are as sacred as his own; whose characters for loyalty, unlike his, are spotless, so far as my knowledge of them goes; whose word is, in my judjment, far more credit-worthy touching his political connections and labors. My promises to them prohibit me from divulging their names.

Lastly. What have I done to the Dr?

I waited patiently till I became satisfied and assured of his dangerous character, abilities, and operations, then directed my Prov. Marshal to notify him that he must either take the oath of allegiance to the Govt. of the United states, or leave the city within twenty four hours. Would a Union man hesitate about the alternative to take? If he is disloyal, was the punishment severe?

The Provt. Marshal found him absent in New York. He is not yet returned; probably on accout of notice of the order recd.

Taking the oath will destory his influence in the quarter he most wishes to exercise it.

Upon my own information, backed by the calm and Christian judgment of the good Bishop and true patriot, whose letter is enclosed, I beg you to support my action relative to Dr. Hawks. Let him stay away from Baltimore, or go to Europe, as some of his friends propose -- that will be a happy end to an affair quite as disagreeable to me as to his Union friends.

I laid my order at his door, because, being leader among the disaffected Ministers, I hoped his example will would, for the present, at least, admonish the rest.3

3 After reading Wallace’s letter, Lincoln allowed the general to use his “careful discretion” in handling the case. See Collected Works, VII, 339-40.

I have the honor to be,

Truly and respectfully,

Yr. friend & s’v’t,

Lew. Wallace,

Maj. Gen. Com’ M’d.


P. S. When Bishop Wittingham agreed to write you his letter, it was under my promise that it should be delivered into your own hands, as he desired it for you confidentially. The Secy of War, not understanding the affair, declines letting one of my Aids go to Washington with it: therefore I have sent it to you through Hon. H. S. Lane.

Yr. Excellency will see the importance of secresy in the matter as respects the Bishop.

L. W.

Document: Thomas Wolfe Jr. to Thomas Wolfe Sr., May 11, 1864

[Auger?] General Hospital May 11 1864

Dear Father

I have glorious news to write to you we have had about a weeks verry severe fighting our brave troops under the Command of Genl Grant and Mead, have beat the Rebels, and drove them spoiling their Army and are about laying seige to Richmond the rebel Capitol. they began to fight on thirsday last and still continue to fight up till now. it has been one of the most sanguary fights since the war broke out. we have thousands of Wounded and dying soldiers comming in through this hospital-- the Rebels left all their dead and wounded and a large quantity of Provisions in our hands. Dear Father I am ordered out to my Regiment -- immediately. my regiment is in the front and has had verry severe fighting in this last Battle I am now going right into battle and I pray god that he will be with me and guide me and if it is his will that I should die, I feel that I shall go to the bright world above where there is peace for ever. I cannot say by the time you recieve this letter that I shall be alive, or weather I shall be singing praises to almighty god in heaven. I pray god to comfort you and Dear Mother if I should fall. I am not affraid to die I know it is gods will if I should fall under that starry banner which is liberty and freedom, and my last motto shall be

Hurah Boys Hurrah

Down with the Traitor up with the stars

for we will rally round the flag boys

rally once again, Shouting the battle

cry of freedom--

Father, I love this old flag I would fight to uphold it till the last drop of bood in me was shed. I have fought for it more than one time, and have seen the wounded and dying,

Directory: mss -> mal -> maltext -> rtf orig
rtf orig -> Document: Ohio and Illinois General Assemblies, Resolutions for Gradual Emancipation of Slaves, 1824 and 1825
rtf orig -> Document: Alexander K. McClure to Abraham Lincoln, June 30, 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Thomas Corwin to Abraham Lincoln, September 6, 1864
rtf orig -> Document: Harriet Chapman to Abraham Lincoln, January 17, 1865
rtf orig -> Document: Mary C. W. Wadsworth to Abraham Lincoln, July 4, 1864 [With Endorsement by Lincoln]
rtf orig -> Document: Isachar Zacharie to Abraham Lincoln, April 25, 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Abraham Lincoln to Mary Mann, April 5, 1864 [Draft]
rtf orig -> Document: Edwin M. Stanton to Abraham Lincoln, November 18, 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Jesse K. Dubois and Ozias M. Hatch to Abraham Lincoln, September 16, 1863 Springfield Sept 16. 1863
rtf orig -> Document: Joseph Butler to Abraham Lincoln, January 10, 1861

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